A Springboard If You Like, By Dai Rees

"The feet have several functions in the playing of golf, and any golfer who is leaden-footed can say good-bye to good scores.

Everybody knows that during the golf swing the weight is transferred to the right side and then back again.

In attempting that many golfers lift their left heel some considerable distance off the ground, and such an action can easily develop into a sway and generally upset your balance.

The golf swing is like a pendulum.

It is smooth and in one piece, and it is so because the weight is transferred to the right foot and then back to the left without any exaggeration of the movement such as the one I have already referred to - the excessive lifting of the left heel.

Just to make certain there is no sway it is a good plan to concentrate the weight moving over to the right to the inside of the foot.

That gives you a fine firm focal point from which to generate power for the downswing - a springboard if you like."

Reference : 'Dai Rees on Golf', Gerald Duckworth & Co. Ltd, London, WC2. First published in 1959. Copyright © DAI REES 1959. Photographs by H. W. Neale, London S.W.17

Dai Rees on Golf

Available on Amazon : Dai Rees on golf


"This resistance - "hitting against the left" - starts in the left foot, so be sure to keep a firm grip on the ground with that foot. At the moment of impact the muscles should have a feeling a firmness all the way from the foot up to the shoulder and from the shoulder down to the hand. This is to support the hand so that it can function as a fulcrum." Seymour Dunn

Fluid Knee Action and Turn Setting by Roberto DeVicenzo

Roberto Devicenzo 1967 Open Champion in SHELL'S Wonderful World of Golf' at Karen Country Club Kenya. Available on Amazon : Shell's Wonderful World of Golf Yancey vs Jacklin vs DeVicenzo VHS Volume 22

Keeping Perfect Time (1900) By Harry Vardon

"Newspaper critics always say that it is my second shot which wins me the championship.

Vardon Addressing 1900This I believe myself to be perfectly true, and I will endeavor to describe how it is that I make it.

The most important point, which results in long accurate playing, is the keeping perfect time between the raising of the club, after addressing the ball, to the top of the swing, and the raising of the left heel over the left toe as it pivots around.

These two motions should take place simultaneously; and the downward swing and the return of the left foot to the exact position it was in when the upward swing commenced should also be simultaneous.

At the precise moment when the left heel reaches the ground and the club head strikes the ball, the raising of the right heel over the right toe commences; and it rises in the same proportion as the club rises in the follow through, until both reach their limit, which limit is the very point of your right toe.

The minute that point is reached the swing is completed, and unless you allow your arms to follow through until your toe reaches that point, you check your swing and lose distance."

Reference : 'FORM IN GOLF.' By Harry Vardon. Outing for April. April 1900. Open Champion of Great Britain.

"Finally, I want to again impress on anyone who wishes to become a good golfer the lasting importance of having the arms and feet work together. Unless they do, you can never become a long straight driver." Harry Vardon

Action of The Left Foot (1909) By James Braid

"The stiff body men do not know all of the pleasures of driving a golf ball, even though they may hit some fairly good ones at times. Another good result of proper body-twist is that the tendency to sway is almost entirely removed.

One factor of importance in this consideration is the part played by the left leg while the upward swing is being made. All the men who play with the stiff body, and many others besides, get into the way of pivoting on the left toe and bending the leg more outwards than in any other direction.

But you ought not to pivot on the toe at all, and the bend in the knee ought not be outwards.

You should pivot on the fore and inner part of the shoe, that part which is occupied by the ball of the foot and the big toe, and when the bend in the leg is made in response to the upward swing it should be inwards and towards the right toe.

A purely outward bend is of no more use than if not made at all; while, on the other hand, the inward bend not only greatly facilitates the upward swing, but might almost be said to encourage the body to do the necessary twist.

I would draw the reader's very careful attention to the sectional photographs that are given on a separate page, and which in this form show the various workings of the different parts of the body while the swing is in process as they could not be shown in any other way."

Leg Action In Driving By James Braid

Leg Action In Driving. Stance - Top of Swing - Finish

Reference : 'Advanced Golf Or, Hints And Instruction For Progressive Players' By James Braid Chapter IV Long Driving Action of The Left Foot. Open Champion, 1901, 1905, AND 1906. With Eighty-Eight Photographs And Diagrams Fifth Edition Methuen & Co. 36 Essex Street W. C. London. August 1909.

"You should pivot on the fore and inner part of the shoe, that part which is occupied by the ball of the foot and the big toe, and when the bend in the leg is made in response to the upward swing it should be inwards and towards the right toe." James Braid

Hold The Left Side Firm (1922) By Joyce Wethered

"The Slice is caused by drawing the club head from right to left across the direction of the stroke.

The ball when it is hit is inclined to travel from the heel towards the toe of the club, and this is brought about in several ways.

Golf From Two Sides by Joyce and Roger WetheredThe right shoulder in the down swing may be coming round too early, the right elbow at the same time may have left the right side, endeavouring to play an excessive part in the stroke.

Probably the best way to correct this tendency will be to hold the left side firm and not only to forbid the left hip to relax and fall away, but compel it to point in the direction of the hole at the finish of the swing.

To assist in this, it may be found profitable to bring the right foot back, so that there is a greater pressure on the right instep, which will prevent the body from slewing round.

At all costs attempt to swing as close to the body as possible when coming down, and after the ball is truck to follow through in an outward direction."

Reference: 'Golf From Two Sides' by Roger and Joyce Wethered. With Twenty-Eight Illustrations. Longmans, Green and Co. 39 Paternoster Row, London, E.C.4. New York, Toronto, Bombay, Calcutta And Madras 1922 All rights reserved. Chapter IV Tee Shots : Particularly From The Ladies' Point of View. 1. The Swing.

"The ground is not only for standing on, but to use. Your right side must resist every tendency to follow the club in the backswing; your left side must push against the forward movement of the arms and club at the moment of impact. If you sway in the same direction as your club in the backswing or at the moment of impact, you get the empty shot." George Duncan

Keeping The Left Side Rigid (1924) By Cyril J. H. Tolley

Letting the left side give at the moment of hitting makes the ball fly away to the right, and an easy way to remedy that is to remember to turn the left toe in, so that it is at least at a right angle to the proposed line of flight of the ball.

If he then keeps his left foot firm on the ground it aids considerably in keeping the left side rigid.

A too open stance - that is, with the left foot placed in the rear of the right, thus giving a two-eyed stance - will invariably cause a slice.

Therefore bring the left foot well up towards the ball.

Always, when I wish to make a compulsory slice round some inconsiderable tree that blocks out the direct line to the green, I adopt a more open stance.

C. J. H. Tolley The Modern GolferThen, in making my back swing, I take the club rather out from my body, and in hitting the ball play across my body, taking care not to turn the right hand over in doing so, but rather keeping the face of the club open.

Too rigid a grip with the left hand will cause the ball to fly to the right, and to cure that do not increase the tension of the right hand, but rather try to slacken slightly the grip of the left.

If both hands are gripping the club too tightly, the player will find that he is unable to swing freely, and will lose distance as a consequence.

Another and final cause of slicing is caused by getting the left hand too far under the shaft of the club.

Try to get your left thumb just on the right side of the shaft, so that the V formed by the thumb and first finger is in the same alignment as that made by the right hand."

Reference : 'The Modern Golfer' by Cyril J. H. Tolley Amateur Champion 1920; Welsh Champion 1921, 1923, French Open Champion 1924 With 67 Illustrations. W. Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. August 1924.

"The left heel is off the ground, but not more than about an inch. It is fatal to exaggerate the lifting of the left heel. It is more important that the left shoulder should be turned fully to point towards the ball." Bobby Locke

Ankle Action (1932) By Alex J. Morrison

A New Way to Better Golf 1949 By Alex J Morrison Content same as 1932 Publication (Some Illustrations not on same quality paper as of 1932 version)"If you have difficulty in getting the club back far enough and if you feel that it requires a real effort to raise your arms and hands, you may be sure that the condition is caused by incorrect leg and hip action.

You can overcome this trouble by rolling your left foot over toward the inside as the initial movement of your backswing.

This action will afford you the necessary freedom in your left side and thus enable you to move your arms and hands back with little or no effort."

Ankle Action At Start of Backswing By Alex J Morrison

"ANKLE ACTION AT START OF BACKSWING Wrong. Lifting the left heel at the start of the swing indicates an improper body action. Right. To start the backswing properly the left foot must roll over toward the inside before its heel leaves the ground."

Reference : 'A New Way to Better Golf' By Alex J. Morrison With A Foreword By Rex Beach And An Introduction By Bernard Darwin William Heinemann Ltd. Chapter IX Doctoring The Ailing Swing. First Published October 1932 Reprinted October 1949 At The Windmill Press, Kingswood, Surrey.

Available on Amazon : A New Way to Better Golf

Interviewing Alex Morrison By Grantland Rice, The American Golfer, February, 1933.

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Making A Good Hip Turn Left Knee Points In by Miller Barber

120 Mins To Better Golf Available on Amazon VHS Personal Tips
from 18 Legends 5. Turning The Hips For Power Miller Barber

Sole of The Left Foot (1914) By Arnaud Massy

"The moment the wrists have come into play, that is to say so soon as the club head is away from the ball, it becomes impossible to keep the feet in the same position as at first.

The left in particular needs to move and it must be allowed to pivot slightly round.

To this end the heel is lifted a little and the foot turns on the sole, which remains touching the ground.

Not the toes but the side of the boot-sole must be made to pivot, and the sketch below shows the exact spot.

Sole of The Left Foot to pivot by Arnaud Massy

FIG. 3. Sole of the left foot. The black mark shows the part of the foot on which the pivoting movement should be made during the upward swing.

In so pivoting, the weight of the body is almost entirely transferred to the right leg, while the left knee is turned inwards towards it.

The right leg is held rather stiff, while the right heel is always planted square on the ground."

Reference : 'GOLF' By Arnaud Massy Champion of The World. Translated By A. R. Allinson With Thirteen Diagrams And Twelve Plates Methuen & Co. Ltd, 36 Essex Street W. C. London. First Published in 1911, by Pierre Lafitte et Cie of Paris. This translation First Published in 1914. Chap. VI The Drive - Analysis of Movements - The Swing First Movement.

"Screwing the body round on the left toe is not pivoting. Pivoting is a gradual turning of the body, and the two main points to watch are the left shoulder and the right hip. Some people will tell you that the shoulder is the more important, and others the hip. I think it on the whole the best plan to tell my pupils to bear both equally in mind." George Duncan

Getting The Left Heel Down (1927) By Jack Gordon

"Getting the left heel down on the ground on the forward swing immediately before impact is highly important.

Few payers realize how this enters into a well-played shot.

Perhaps you wonder why it is necessary to raise the left heel at all.

Understandable Golf Jack GordonIn my article on pivoting I explained that in order to properly turn or pivot sufficiently something must give way since one cannot pivot around far enough and still keep both feet flat on the ground without throwing the weight too far forward, so the left knee gives and the heel is raised to accommodate the body turn.

But many players in their hurry to hit the ball hit before the left heel is returned to the ground and cannot possibly be in balance to deliver the blow at the ball.

In the making of shots of 150 yards from the green and under, it is not necessary to raise the left heel at all as a player can get enough power into his swing by simply bending in his left knee."

Reference : 'Understandable Golf' By Jack Gordon. Chapter 6. Pivoting. Professional Country Club of Buffalo Williamsville, N. Y. Illustrations By Hare, Buffalo. Copyright, 1927 By Jack Gordon.

"If the head is kept perfectly still and the body freely pivoted there will be no difficulty in making a clean stroke." Percy Alliss

Percy Alliss Top of The Swing Left Foot Takes Its SHare of Weight 1926

Plate IX. The Spoon. TOP OF THE SWING The pivot of the shoulders is full, but the left foot still takes its share of weight on the inside of the toe. The extreme point of the club-head is pointed directly downwards.

Reference : 'Better Golf' By Percy Alliss Wannsee Golf And Country Club, Berlin Formerly of Wanstead Golf Club With An Introduction By George W. Greenwood And Twenty-Four Action Photographs By Horace Grant A. & C. Black, Ltd. 4, 5 & 6, Soho Square, London, W.I Chapter VIII. The Jigger 1926

The Golf Swing Set To Music (1957) By Robert Adams

"Tucked away in the cover of this book you'll find a Golf Swing Rhythm Record.

It's the golf swing set to music. This brief text tells you how to use the music of the record to improve the timing of your shots.

Timing Your Golf Swing By Robert Winthorp AdamsIt is not the purpose of the record to teach the expert swing.

That can only be learned from a golf professional. The record is to help you get better results from your present swing, whatever it may be. It shows you how to time your swing more like the experts and therefore shoot a better game. Just play the music often, while you make easy practice swings with some handy club.

In this natural way, you implant the feeling of a well-timed swing in your muscles, where it belongs.

Then you'll hit the ball straighter and farther, with new confidence that the shot is coming off.

Let this Rhythm Record put music in your stroke. You'll find it helps your game. Listen to the music just before you leave the house for a round of golf."

Listen to the Music mp3 file

Swinging to the music of this record is a simple matter.

It's the easiest possible way to learn the true rhythm of the golf swing. All you have to do is make your usual swing in slow motion, keeping in time with the music as you listen to the key words:

"EA-sy back STRETCH and then HEEL THROUGH!"

This is Side I that explains the rhythm and gives it out in words and music

Side II of the Adams Golf Swing Rhythm Record 45 R.P.M tests how well you have learned the rhythm.

To Sum It Up

There is rhythm in a good golf swing.

It can be learned, so practice diligently with the Rhythm Record. Then you'll approach each shot with confidence and you'll be rewarded with longer, straighter shots and lower scores.

When practicing:

  1. Sense the rhythm; take it EA - sy.
  2. STRETCH your left arm back.
  3. Return your left HEEL promptly to the ground.
  4. Go all-out for the THROUGH position.

When playing in a match:

  1. Sense the rhythm.
  2. Leave the thinking to your opponent!"

Reference : Robert Winthrop Adams' book 'Timing Your Golf Swing With a 45 R.P.M. Adams Golf Swing Rhythm Record' Introduction by Francis Ouimet Jacket Design by Larry Lurin The Citadel Press 222 Fourth Avenue New York 3, N.Y. Copyright © 1957 by Robert Winthrop Adams.

About The Author : Robert Winthrop Adams of Waban, Massachusetts, is a registered engineer who has an unusual hobby, the kinematics of the golf swing. He is the inventor of the Adam 'loRYTHMic Swinging Weight Scale', 'Golf Swing-O-Scope', and Adams 'Golf Timer'. The author of numerous articles on the golf swing in Golfing and Golf Illustrated, Bob Adams has lectured on this subject at various country clubs and annual meetings of the PGA (Professional Golfer's Association of America) Source : 'Timing Your Golf Swing With a 45 R.P.M. Adams Golf Swing Rhythm Record' by Robert Winthrop Adams.

Available on Amazon : Timing Your Golf Swing With a 45 R.P.M. Adams Golf Swing Rhythm Record

"The way to produce the correct action in the right leg is to concentrate the weight on the inside of the right foot at address, keeping it there throughout the backswing." Vivien Saunders

Like Learning The Waltz (1966) By Jack Nicklaus

"Learning the footwork for a golf swing is a little like learning the waltz.

You are attempting to develop tempo and rhythm, and the best way to do it is to go off somewhere by yourself and give it a try: one-two-three, one-two-three.

Begin by taking a narrower stance than normal, for this allows you to exaggerate the rocking motion of Jack Nicklaus Try Your Footwork To Waltz Time Sports Illustrated 1966the feet. Now try a chip-shot swing—with or without a club—and feel how the feet move. Then extend the swing by degrees as you get loosened up, until you eventually are using the body action required for a tee shot.

The left foot should be rolling in on the backswing, and the right foot rolling in on the downswing.

As your swing gets longer your heels are going to come off the ground slightly, the left heel on the backswing and the right heel on the follow-through, but this should be kept to a minimum.

Ideally, it would be better—without disrupting the rest of your swing—if you could keep the left heel on the ground all the time, but I can't.

My own left heel lifts when I extend my swing to the four-or five-iron.

In addition to helping your footwork, this exercise will also improve your hand action."

Reference : May 30, 1966 Try Your Footwork To Waltz Time Jack Nicklaus in the 'Sports Illustrated Magazine'. Copyright CNN Interactive by Cable News Network LP, LLLP ("CNN") in SI Vault Copyright © 2010 Time Inc. A Time Warner Company.'

"Throughout my golfing career, when I was hitting my shots well, my weight stayed inside the right edge of my right foot on the backswing, and I was firm as a rock on my left leg at the finish." Gene Sarazen

Braced Left-Side Blocks The Swing (1969) By Bill Cox

"During the downswing, too, both knees remain flexed and turn slightly so that they are almost aiming along the line of flight.

As you come into the downswing you add yet more power to the hands by thrusting through with the right leg - it's a combination of a push with the inside of the right shoe and a 'kick' with the knee.

For many years Britain's golf professionals stressed the importance of bracing the whole of the left side either at, or just before, the moment of impact.

Once again, this is an area of the golf swing where we have learnt the error of our ways, because this braced left-side method simply blocks the swing, restricts the follow-through, and prevents the player from getting full power into the shot.

It used to be widely taught and many people tried to do it; nowadays we know better, and no good player tries to keep the left side braced.

Let your full weight go through on a flexed left knee and allow the hands and body to go through to a stylish follow-through."

Reference : 'Bill Cox's Golf Companion' Bill Cox And Nicholas Tremayne With Line and Half-Tone Illustrations J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd London © Text and diagrams, J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd, 1969. First published 1969. 2 Bill Cox, Golf Teacher The Swing: Stance And Leg Action, page 111.

"The left heel should return to the ground the moment that the ball is hit, as the player at impact should be in the same position he was when addressing the ball." Jock Hutchison


Proper Footwork (1975) By Jack Grout

"One of the main things that makes good golfers is their ability to keep themselves in balance while they swing full out.

You see many mediocre players, especially older adults, who do stay nicely in balance but don't really create much motion: all they basically do is lift the club up and down with their hands and arms.

And you see many other poor players who make all kinds of motion - arms, shoulders, hips, legs, everything moves - but who fall over themselves by losing balance: no two swings they make are anywhere near similar.

As I've mentioned, keeping a steady head while swinging does help you to maintain balance.

However, it is proper footwork that primarily promotes both balance and full swinging. And once you develop proper footwork, I can promise you that you'll hit your shots both farther and more accurately, and that you'll do so a lot more consistently. Proper footwork is simply a matter of rolling your ankles correctly while keeping your knees flexed at all times.

On the backswing your left ankle rolls inward toward your right foot, so that most of your weight shifts from left to right onto the inside of the right foot (the rest remaining on the inside of the left). Then, at the start of your downswing, both ankles roll laterally to the left so that your weight gradually shifts from the inside of your right foot to the inside of your left foot.

This simple to-and-fro working of the ankles will, in itself, give supple golfers all the body motion they need while swinging.

Let Me Teach You Golf As I Taught Jack Nicklaus by Jack GroutIn fact, I teach a drill to junior golfers in which they never lift the left heel during the backswing, which deepens their sense of balance and forces them to develop a full arm swing.

To provide a full body turn, older and less supple golfers may need to allow the left heel to lift slightly as they roll the ankle to the inside during the backswing.

As far as the right heel is concerned, it should lift gradually as your arms swing forward and upward after impact.

Basically, however, proper footwork is merely a matter of rolling the ankles as I've described."

Reference : 'Let Me teach You Golf As I Taught Jack Nicklaus' Six Fundamentals Jack Grout with Dick Aultman Illustrated by Jim McQueen Atheneum / SMI New York 1975 Copyright © 1975 by Jack Grout and Dick Aultman Designed by Kathleen Carey. Fundamental 4: Proper Footwork.

A Firm Left Side (1993) By David Leadbetter

"In order to hit the ball solidly (and consistently), it is important that through impact you hit into what we describe as a firm left side.

In other words, for the position that you achieve at impact to be effective, the left side of your body must be firm enough to both support and resist the release of the clubhead as your trunk unwinds.

A weak or 'soft' left side (ie. that which we would associate with an overly flexed left leg, or one that slides too far forward) affords no resistance as there is nothing to hit against.

Although you will feel inhibited at first, turning your left foot slightly inwards when you practise will serve to eliminate any tendency that you may have to 'slide' your left side through impact, and encourage a much better rotation of your upper body against the resistance of a braced left leg through the hitting area."

Reference : David Leadbetter's Faults and Fixes with John Huggan. How to correct the 80 most common problems in golf. Fix No. 27. Illustrations by Dave F. Smith. Foreword by Nick Price. HarperCollinsPublishers Copyright © 1993 by David Leadbetter.

Collapsing of the Left Side Causes Slice by Tony Lema

Tony Lema 1964 Open Champion in SHELL'S Wonderful World of Golf' at Glyfada Golf Club Athens Greece. Available on Amazon : Shell's Wonderful World of Golf: DeVicenzo Vs. Lema Volume 2 [VHS]

The Reverse C (2004) By Nick Bradley

"One of my main objectives in writing this book was to uncover and explain some of the most commonly-used phrases in golf terminology.

However, simply offering a description of a swing trait or fault is not enough.

It needs to be analyzed and then revealed for what it is and how it affects the golf swing.

What is the Reverse C?

  • The Reverse 'C' finish is a result of a tilted mid-section and an overly-aggressive leg drive.
  • The weight almost always finishes on the back foot with the spine arched away from the target
  • When this happens, it places a positional strain upon all the major joints in the right side of the body
  • Poor strikes, inconsistent divot patterns and a varied ball trajectory are often the result of this fault
  • If you suspect that this finish is part of your swing, check the dorsal aspect of your address, followed by a review of your level belt line. It will help.

The term 'Reverse C' finish' is a casual description of the backward arching of the spine through impact and into the follow-through that, as the term suggests, resembles the shape of a reversed letter 'C'.

The 'Reverse C' - key joints out of line

An excessive hip and leg drive at the start of the downswing causes the relationship between the shoulders, arms and knees to break down.

The Reverse C - key joints move out of line by Nick Bradley

If you look closely at the image on the previous page, you will see that the major joints of the right side of the body have fallen out of line and that the body is in an unbalanced and unstable position.

The downward lurch with the hips and knees effectively forces the sternum backwards, thereby setting the low point of the swing too far behind the ball and bringing all kinds of poorly-struck shots into play. The end result is that the hands and arms are forced to play catch up and, invariably, the player will have to rely on a 'flicky' release with the wrists in order to square the blade at impact - a method that is not particularly conducive to producing consistent golf.

The 'Reverse C' - key joints fall into line

The right leg has to wait before it can become involved in the downswing.

If it is activated too early, the legs are literally whipped away from underneath the torso.

In the second image, you can see how every major joint in the right side of the body falls into line with the rest.

The correct level finish - key joints fall into line by Nick Bradley

This produces a shallow attack into the ball and well-struck shots time after time. Another welcome benefit is of course the reduction of the possibility of injury.

Nick Bradley The 7 Laws of the Golf Swing BBC BookIt is amazing to think that this position, which is created by excessive leg and hip action in the downswing, was taught as a desirable finish in the late 1960s and '70s.

It is little wonder that so many golfers from that era now suffer from spine-related injuries."

Reference : 'The 7 Laws Of The Golf Swing', Picturing the Perfect Swing. Nick Bradley Leading Golf Coach, Law 6 page 130-131. Foreword by Justin Rose. First published © 2004 © BBC Worldwide Ltd. Copyright © Nick Bradley 2004. www.nickbradley.com

Download : 'The 7 Laws Of The Golf Swing, How your mid-section holds orbit Law 3 Ground Force Dynamics, Firing Into The Ball The truth about the downswing the 'step in' drill Law 6' By Nick Bradley, leading coach, 2004.

Available on Amazon : The Seven Laws of the Golf Swing

"The downswing has traditionally been viewed as dangerous, fragile and volatile. For almost a century now the question of what actually starts the downswing has consumed thousands of players and coaches around the world. This question refers to the correct sequencing of the downswing and will finally be answered overleaf by the 'step in' drill." Nick Bradley

Good Footwork And Leg Work For Power By Vivien Saunders

British Ladies Open Champion 1977. World's Top Woman Golf Coach. Goof Footwork And Leg Work For Power. Available on Amazon : The Vivien Saunders Golf Clinic: the Golf Swing and the Long Game [VHS]

"The most successful key thought for teaching anyone to shift his weight onto his left foot is: skid your right foot two to four inches along the ground towards your left foot at the instant you hit the ball. You must shift your weight off the right foot in order to skid it as you cannot drag your right foot along the ground and at the same time stand on it. Miss the ball entirely if you like, but skid that foot!" Seymour Dunn


by Glenna Collett - If I keep my feet doing the proper work

"One of my earliest instructors was a "pro" at the Metacomet Club named John Anderson.

GOLF for Young Players Glenna CollettThis teacher of mine had a very fine sense of rhythm, and I can remember him for nothing else except the fact he insisted that I swing with musical rhythm I am quite satisfied.

He must have been very fond of "Yankee Doodle Dandy," for I remember that he used to sing to me :

"Mind your music and your step, And with your clubs be handy."

And true it is that, if I keep my feet doing the proper work and manage to get music and grace into my swing, then I shall be able to handle the club effectively.

So, too, with all who do likewise."

Reference : 'Golf For Young Players' by Glenna Collett, Women's National Amateur Champion. With illustrations. Little, Brown, and Company 1926. Page 12. Copyright, 1926, By Glenna Collett. Published September, 1926. This is a facsimile of the 1926 edition of the book "Golf For Young Players" Published by Old Golf Shop, Inc. Cincinnati, Ohio 1984.

by Johnny Revolta - Proper footwork

"The important thing in the downswing is proper footwork.

I often refer to the downswing as the automatic act of rebalancing.

At the top of the backswing the body is coiled, the wrists are cocked, the left foot is turned over on its side and the left knee is bent inward towards the right.

In the process of the downswing we want to regain our starting position.

The primary thing that happens is that the feet once again become firmly planted on the ground at the moment of impact.

For that reason I lay great stress, in teaching, on proper footwork.

If you have taken the proper natural backswing, your footwork will be perfectly timed with your swing.

That perfect timing will then follow naturally as you rebalance yourself in the downswing."

Reference : Johnny Revolta's 'Johnny Revolta's 'Short Cuts To Better Golf', Revised Edition, by Johnny Revolta and Charles B. Cleveland. Illustrated by Jerry Gibbons. Copyright © 1949, 1956 by Johnny Revolta and Charles B. Cleveland. Designed by Maurice Serle Kaplan.

by Tommy Armour - More weight on the left foot with the iron shots

In your stance, the position of the ball with relation to your feet is, of course, important, but it isn't so primarily important as the distribution of your weight.

About ninety per cent of all golfers scuff their shots because they haven't thought about how to distribute their weight.

In addressing your drive, have the feeling that about sixty per cent of your weight is being supported by your right foot.

On the other shots, where the ball is to be hit on the down stroke or at the very bottom of the swing arc, you should feel that at address about sixty per cent of your weight is being supported by your left foot.

The sixty per cent figure is arbitrary. I don't know exactly what the percentage figure should be, but I do know that there must be very distinctly a feeling of more weight on the right foot in addressing the drive, and on the left foot with the other shots.

You don't need to worry about the weight distribution during the rest of the swing if you have taken the right stance, kept yourself in unfrozen balance, and have allowed your feet to work on the ground with freedom, but always with secure footing.

To hit a good iron shot, your club must contact the ball before the sole of the club gets to the bottom of its arc. This gets backspin on the ball, eliminates hitting behind the ball, and gets the hands ahead of the ball as the shot is hit.

Having the weight borne more on the left foot than on the right as you're coming into the ball is the way of getting the correct downward path of the iron.

That combination of elements accounts for turf being taken after the well-hit iron shot is played. The club reaches the lowest point of its travel beneath the ball, rather than at the back of the ball.

The majority of players hit their iron shots badly because the are afraid of hitting down and letting the clubface go down through the ball and forward. So, these players keep their weight back on the right leg and try to scoop the ball up. That's the cause of most topped iron shots and plowing up the turf before the ball is hit.

You will see frequent evidence of this error as you notice that most of the 80-and-up players fall back out of balance on iron shots. They also fall forward on the wood shots.

I have my pupils spend considerably more time with the irons than with the woods. When they handle the irons reasonably well, learning how to play the woods is much easier."

Reference : Tommy Armour's book 'How To play Your Best Golf ALL THE TIME', Illustrated by Lealand Gustavson, Copyright © 1953, by Thomas D. Armour. Published by Simon and Schuster, Inc. New York, 1953.

Of Marley Harris - Having begun her career as a dancer, and while she was shopping

"Marley Harris, who died on August 19 aged 83, was, as Marley Spearman, one of the leading amateur lady golfers of the 1960s, having begun her career as a dancer on the West End stage.

Born Marley Joan Baker on January 11, 1928, she was the daughter of a businessman and was brought up at Wimbledon, south-west London.

Marley left school early to embark on a career on the stage, joining a dance troupe which performed with The Crazy Gang at the Windmill Theatre in the West End of London.

When she was in her early 20s she married Tony Spearman, who worked in the car trade, and left the stage. The role of housewife, however, did not suit her, and she was on the lookout for a new interest when one afternoon, while she was shopping at Harrods, she saw a notice advertising free golf lessons.

Marley SpearmanShe decided to give it a try, and became hooked.

Having had her lessons, she took to practising in the garage of her mews house in London, striking balls against a carpet hung on the wall.

She also joined Sudbury golf club in Middlesex, and within two years had reduced her handicap to 4.

She persevered and in 1961 and 1962 won the Ladies' British Open Amateur Championship.

She was New Zealand champion in 1963, and English Champion in 1964.

In 1960, 1962 and 1964 she was a member of the Curtis Cup Team. She also played in the Vagliano Trophy matches in 1959 and 1961, and in the Commonwealth Tournament - now the Astor Trophy - in 1959 and 1963.

Between 1955 and 1965 she was Middlesex champion eight times. She reached the semi-finals of the Canadian championships in 1959, and of the French in 1964.

In 1962, after she had won the British title for the second year in succession, Madame Tussauds commissioned a wax work of her".

Source : The Telegraph - Copyright © Telegraph Media Group Limited 2011

by Eddie Loos - What 2,000 golfers have taught me. The two big things in golf

"Ten years ago I became a professional.

The other night I got out my pencil and started figuring. Estimating that I have instructed and played with an average of two hundred golfers each year means that I have watched and observed over two thousand golfers, ranging from the new beginner to the best players in the country, both in the amateur and professional ranks.

I am not setting this up as a record or an unusual figure. Many professionals, longer in the game than I, could truthfully quote much larger numbers. But the thing that I do want to emphasize is that I have really watched every golfer I have come in contact with and as a result of this study have learned some things which I believe are really worthwhile...

There are two major things that make a golfer - they have been present in every golfer I have ever observed and lacking in every man who failed to play the game.

Now you may say "I hook" - "I slice" - "I top" - but those things are results, not causes, and my experience shows that if causes are removed proper results follow...

The two big "causes" that my observation leads me to believe are responsible for the majority of golfing ills are a) lack of control of the club; b) hitting outside the line before reaching the ball on the downswing.

Control of the club simply means that the "feel" of the shaft and the clubhead is in the fingers of both hands all through the swing - every second during the shot I know where my club face is - back - up - impact - through a finish - every second. So does every other professional and a great many good amateurs.

Balance takes care of itself when you have the feel of the club. This control the club - or the "feel" of it - is almost impossible to convey to a man who has never had it in golf.

But there is another method, by direct description, of imparting it which I will deal with later.

Control of the club is the thing which gives sureness to the shot - which gives mastery of the length and strength of the swing. It ensures timing - crispness- balance - most of the things which good golfers have and poor golfers lack.

So much for control - and you must have control - "feel" - before you can hit on the correct line.

The second thing is hitting outside the line before the club head reaches the ball.

This means you are hitting towards yourself instead of away from you - it makes you struggle to hold your balance at the finish - it may be the result of "looping" - body in too soon or any one of a dozen different things - but it prevents your getting full power into the shot - absolutely excludes the possibility of your hitting on that straight line, "the correct flight path" before and after reaching the ball.

For - this should be explained and understood - the man who has the feeling of "hitting away from himself" does nothing of the kind - he makes his club travel on a straight line at the vital part of the swing - the bottom.

These are the two big things in golf - control of the club - hitting inside the line."

Reference : 'What 2,000 Golfers Have Taught Me' The Young Ravisloe Professional Propounds Some Novel Ideas About the Game' By Eddie Loos, Golf Illustrated, April 1921. Courtesy LA84 Foundation, Digital Library, www.LA84Foundation.org

Download : 'What 2,000 Golfers Have Taught Me' By Eddie Loos, 1921.

Find out more about Eddie Loos : Philadelphia PGA Section

by Ben Hogan - All of us, quite like detectives

"All of us, quite like detectives, set off on our own separate paths. We develop a cure here, put it to the test to see if it holds up, develop another lead there, test this lead in turn to see if it will hold up, and so on and so on. It is not an easy job.

Perhaps the only true mystery to golf is the essential magnetism the game possesses which makes so many of us, regardless of discouragement, never quite turn in our trench coats and magnifying glasses and stop our search for the answers."

Reference :Ben Hogan's book on the 'Five Lessons, The Modern Fundamentals of Golf', Chapter 2, Stance and Posture © Copyright by Hogan Royalty Partners, L.P. 2006

by Tom Watson - How do you stop a slice?

"The most commonly asked question to me is how do you stop a slice?

Everybody seems that they slice the ball and they want a solution. Well, there are several things I tell. The first thing I look at is the grip... A lot of the time, that's the only solution that's necessary for people who slice the ball."

Reference : Tom Watson's Lessons of A Lifetime DVD, Instruction from one of Golf's Greats, Your Step by Step guide to a better game in 44 lessons. Two Disc Set & Instructional Booklet © Copyright 2010 Tom Watson Productions, tomwatson.com.

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