To Avoid A Slice, By Joyce Wethered

"As regards the type of shot that is going to be played, the following idea of regulating a slice, pull or straight shot, may be helpful.

Imagine on the ground before you a straight line pointing at the hole, with the ball lying on that line.

It is common knowledge that coming across the ball will produce a slice; but it is not so common for players to cure themselves of this error if they have become confirmed slicers.

In order to avoid this habit, first of all, do not let the shoulders turn so early at the top of the swing.

Keep the right shoulder back sufficiently long to allow yourself to feel that you can swing the club head down at the ball inside the line of play.

This means that the arms will swing down much closer to the body than if the shoulders had turned earlier.

Also, if the shoulders are not allowed to turn too easily, it will mean that the right shoulder will have to pass well under the left."

Reference : 'Golfing Memories and Methods' by Joyce Wethered With 54 Illustrations London Hutchinson & CO. (Publishers) LTD. Made and Printed in Great Britain at the Mayflower Press, Plymouth 1933. Open Champion 1922, 1924, 1925, 1929. English Champion 1920, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924.

Golfing Memories and Methods Joyce Wetherhed

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Learning Golf

GOLF RESEARCH ARCHIVE 2011 - 2022 - Cure To A Slice Left Hand Must Bear Back. Note: Most PDFs and videos removed as not key to The Sum Total = Good Golf. Of those that remain some are not key either.

"It is the downward slash of the left arm from the top of the swing plus the slapping through of the club head with the right hand that speeds up the club head, and the timing of the unwinding of the body controls not only the direction of the swing, but also the timing of the forearms and wrists in their work of getting the club head through. The wrists always snap directly in front of the body. 85 per cent of the speed of the club head is attained by the wrists. A golfer is no stronger than his hands." Seymour Dunn

A Great Deal Of Strength Justin Rose U.S. Open Champion 2013

In Justin's Shot and Tip Index with coach Nick Bradley and PGA Professionals Gary Smith, short game coach, and Johnny Young, head coach at Rosslare Golf Club. Available on Amazon : Play Better Golf [DVD]

First Principles (1907) By Alex Smith

Alex Smith Open Champion, United States and Western Open Champion

Alex Smith

"At last we are ready to begin but we are not yet prepared to play our first round ; indeed, I will ask to let your clubs stay in the bag until you have mastered a simple exercise or two.

For I have now to impress upon your mind one of the prime essentials of good play. It sounds very simple - keep your head steady. But in practise it isn't so easy. The natural inclination is to let the body follow the club in the up swing, and of course the head goes with it. This swaying to the right is a common fault of the beginner, and it is quite the worst one that he can commit.

It keeps the body from entering properly into the stroke and as the arc of the circle in which the club head swings is constantly changing, accurate hitting is rendered impossible.

It may be laid down as an indispensable principle that the body turns only upon its vertical axis throughout the stroke, while the head is kept virtually stationary. To make you understand this I am to give you a "setting-up" exercise, as they call it in the army.

Draw a chalk line on the floor or ground and stand with the left toe just touching the line and the right foot half way across it. et the knees be slightly bent, as this will throw the weight back upon the heels where it ought to be. The feet should no be too near together nor too wide apart, and both toes should be turned out. Let the arms fall naturally at the side with the head inclined a little forward and looking down.

Now turn the body to the right, still keeping the head in its original position. After you have made about a quarter turn you will not be able to go further with any comfort unless you do one of two things - either you must sway to the right or you must ease off the strain on the left leg.

Alex Smith Driving The Horizontal Swing Snap of the Wrists 1907

The first is wrong, the second right ; but you will not get the correct idea by simply rising on the left toe. The proper motion is to let the left knee knuckle in towards the right leg. This will naturally drag the left heel off the ground and so permit the body to make a half turn to the right and still maintain its perpendicularity.

The swing to the right properly ends when the left shoulder faces squarely to the front.

The rest of the exercise is very simple.

Reference : 'Lessons in Golf' by Alex Smith Open Champion, United States and Western Open Champion New York, Arthur Pottow, 48 West 27th Street 1907. Copyright by Arthur Pottow. Grannis Press New York. U. S. Open Champion 1906, 1910. 1903 Western Open, 1905, 1909, 1913 Metropolitan Open.

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"The player who models his game on the line of first-class players will find improvement comparatively slow, but having developed a correct method and sticking to it, improvement is bound to follow." Walter J. Travis

Real Secret of Success In Golf (1911) By J. H. Taylor

"Prior to the act of sweeping the ball away toward the green that must be reached is the preliminary flourish with which the player addresses his ball.

"Waggle," if not so elegant, would perhaps best convey the meaning of this preliminary, the wielder of the club "waggling" it in order, not only to shake up and loosen his joints, shoulders, wrists, and elbows, but to assist him in getting into position at the most favourable distance from the tee.

Taylor On Golf 1911But in doing this flourish care must be exercised that it is not carried to too great an extreme. Mannerisms attach themselves very closely to different players, and it is very decidedly so in this case, for I have seen golfers of really first-class excellence shake the head of their club across and over the tee for at least a dozen times before they make up their minds to swing round for the stroke proper.

Such a procedure as this is nothing but a mistake. Just a shake is quite sufficient to assist the arms to secure the necessary degree of freedom, but if such an exercise is carried too far it but defeats its own object.

The eye cannot stand the strain, small though it may appear at the time, the optic nerve becomes fatigued, and to succeed in keeping the eye unswervingly upon the ball is the one and only real secret of success in golf."

Reference : 'Taylor on Golf Impressions, Comments and Hints' by J. H. Taylor Open Champion 1894, 1895, 1900 and 1909 With Forty-Eight Illustrations Almost Entirely From Photographs Specially Taken For The Work Fifth Edition With New Club Directory, Latest Revised Rules And List Of Championships London Hutchinson & Co. Paternoster Row 1911. Chapter XXX. Driving: The Grip.

Download : 'Driving. The Grip, Winners Of The Amateur Championships 1886 to 1910' By J. H. Taylor, 1911, Open Champion.

Download : 'The British Open Championship, Success Of J. H. TAYLOR - The Play Of American Competitors', The American Golfer, Vol. X, No. 4, August, 1913. Copyright, 1913, by the American Golfer, Inc. All rights reserved.

"If he has a four-knuckle grip, the most powerful feeling grip at address, but the weakest in play, he will only succeed in knocking the shaft out of the fingers. The locked left elbow hides a weak left arm." Henry Cotton

The Value Of Practice (1913) By Harold H. Hilton

"THE first lesson to be learned by the aspiring golfer is the value of practice. This is the beginning and end of excellence - the fundamental secret of improvement, other things being equal.

A. F. Macfie By T. Hodge

A. F. Macfie, 1885

Speaking for myself, I am convinced that the present position I hold in the golfing world is in a very great measure due to the faculty I am gifted with, of being able to proceed out to some quiet corner of the links, with just a couple of clubs and a dozen balls, and religiously set myself the task of trying to find out the peculiarities and idiosyncrasies of these particular weapons.

To many this procedure may seem a somewhat dull and uninteresting task, but personally I have always found it to be the most fascinating pastime, and although nowadays my enthusiasm for practice may not be quite so marked as it was ten or twenty years ago, still I must candidly acknowledge enjoying even to this day an hour all alone by myself on the links more than the pleasure of participating in the most interesting and pleasant match one can imagine.

My attention was first called to the value of practice by the case of a British amateur, Mr. A. F. Macfie.

As a small boy I remembered him as a player with a handicap of something like ten or twelve strokes. There seemed no likelihood of his ever becoming a really first rate golfer, for it did not appear as if he was in any way peculiarly adapted for the game.

Modern Golf By Harold H. HiltonHe was not a particularly young man and moreover he was a man of remarkably slight physique, but he overcame these obstacles by a grim determination to conquer the game at any cost. Eventually he did conquer it, as he won the Inaugural Amateur Championship which was held at Hoylake in 1885, defeating in the final round Mr. Horace Hutchinson by no less than six up and four to play.

It was a somewhat extraordinary feat for a player who a few years before was in receipt of a comparatively long handicap and seemed to have nothing in his favor.

Reference : 'MODERN GOLF' BY Harold H. Hilton Illustrated with Photographs OUTING HANDBOOKS New York Outing Publishing Company MCMXVI Copyright, 1913, By Outing Publishing Company. Chapter I - Practice - The Foundation Of Excellence, page 11. Winner British Amateur Championship 1900, 1901, 1911; American Amateur Championship 1911; British Open Championship 1892, 1897.

Download : 'Hoylake, Where A Premium Is Set On Accuracy' By Bernard Darwin. Hoylake, the home of the Royal Liverpool Golf Club. Golf Illustrated, April 1921. Courtesy LA84 Foundation.

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"THE first lesson to be learned by the aspiring golfer is the value of practice. This is the beginning and end of excellence - the fundamental secret of improvement, other things being equal." Harold H. Hilton

The Golf Book of Hours (1915) By Max H. Behr

"WAS golf originally a Scottish game or was it an importation from the continent?

Here is a question that has held every writer who has delved in the history of the game, and among the most prominent historians, so far as I am aware, only the Rev. John Kerr and the late Garden Smith deny any other origin than a Scottish one.

Tailpiece from an illuminated "Book of Hours" in the British Museum, executed at Bruges, 1500-1520

And their whole argument rests upon the surmise, that of club-and-ball games, the essential feature of golf, the putting of a ball into a hole, was peculiar to Scotland alone.

The Rev. John Kerr in The Golf Book of East Lothian says:

"We believe that the putting-out process, which is the essential feature of golf, and differentiates it from so many other club-and ball games, was no borrowed idea, but an original one, and that Scotland, which has the credit of developing golf till the world has come to look upon it as worthy of universal adoption, has also the credit of giving to it the pristine features which it has never wholly lost."

Reference : 'The Golf Book Of Hours' By The Editor, Golf Illustrated & Outdoor America, 1915 August Vol. 3, Issue 5, pgs. 27-29 by Max H. Behr

Reference : M. Moleiro Barcelona The Art of Perfection The Golf Book Book of Hours f.27r, calendar, September.

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"It is now accepted as one of the most constant fundamentals in the game that the club should be gripped in the fingers of the right hand and across the palm of the left hand. This is mentioned regularly in golf books and articles throughout the world. I have long claimed as my golf 'secret,' the variation of the control of the tension in the gripping by individual fingers of the hands." Henry Cotton

Laura Davies Natural Golf 1986 British Women's Open Champion

"Use your natural ability to play better and improve your handicap. It's always worked for me - it'll work for you." Laura Davies at Golf In Dubai. Filmed on location at La Manga Club. 1998 VHS Available on Amazon

"If the club head comes through properly, the ball will rise in the proper way. But a big section of the golfing clan doesn't seem to appreciate this. Let the club head go on through, and by no means make any attempt to jerk the ball up from its lie." Jerome D. Travers

Upright, Medium and Flat (1920) By Walter J. Travis

"SWINGS may be classified under three heads upright, medium and flat.

Let us glance at each in turn.

Reference to Fig. 1, illustrating an upright swing, shows several points of difference between that and the medium and flat swings as depicted in Figs. 2 and 3, respectively, these differences being reflected in the behavior of the ball in flight, more especially in regard to trajectory, Fig. 1 swing driving a higher ball than in the two others.

This is due to the club being taken back from the ball more upright, the immediate result being more carry.

No One Particular Style of Swing Is The Correct Way - Walter J. Travis, 1920

Number 1 - Upright Swing Number 2 - Medium Swing Number 3 - Flat Swing
Number 1 - Upright Swing Number 2 - Medium Swing Number 3 - Flat Swing

Note the different action of the right elbow.

In Figure 3 it is tucked in to the side of the body move closely, as a direct consequence of a flatter arc on the upswing. This produces a lower ball, not so great in carrying power but with more compensatory run, a very useful thing in a wind.

The angle of the shaft is not so acute as in illustrations 1 and 2, the tendency of which contributes toward a slight pull, encouraged also by the flatter swing, the club being taken back a little closer to the body and finishing, at the top, further away from the side. Observe also the direction in which the club points in 1 and 2.

The chief value of these illustrations lies in the fact that the methods are quite sound in each case, although there are slight differences in style.

In other words, they demonstrate that no one particular style of swing is the only correct way of hitting the ball - that equally satisfactory results may be accomplished with any one of the three. As a matter of fact, the balls actually hit finished up virtually the same lengths, that from No. 3 being a trifle longer, due to a longer run from the slight pull imparted, despite the fact that the swing was the shortest of the three.

Some men are so built as to show a natural leaning in favor of one style more than another. It is the part of wisdom for players generally to adopt that particular style which best suits them."

Reference : 'Building Up A Game VII - The Swing Seventh of a Series of Articles Taking Up in Complete Detail a Course in Golf Instruction' By Walter J. Travis. The American Golfer, 1920.

Download : 'Golf Swing Dissected A Happy Medium for the Average Player' By George Duncan, The American Golfer, August, 1915.

"When playing for a straight shot, the club should begin to descend before the body changes from its top-of-the-swing position, save in one respect. As the club starts to return, the left hip may be pushed slightly towards the hole - not unscrewed, but urged an inch or two sideways so as to facilitate the unwinding of the frame which follows immediately." Harry Vardon

The Levering Process (1921) By George Duncan

"The releasing of the left heel simultaneously with the club-head starting on the upward journey should be a gradual movement.

George Duncan Open Champion 1920

George Duncan, 1921

One should be careful always to feel the weight that has been taken off the left heel being transferred to the ball of the great toe. The weight passes gradually up the right side until the up-swing is half accomplished.

Then the left side starts to take charge of the weight in the levering process, and continues to do so until the uptake is completed, when the ball of the left great toe will be carrying its maximum amount of weight ; the maximum allowable, that is to say, but not all the weight.

Bear in mind that all the weight cannot now be on the left, otherwise there will be no balance.

When coming down, the levering process takes place in converse order, the right side tearing the weight from the left, and passes down until the club catches up with it at impact.

Just before impact the left heel is on the ground to receive the weight coming forward on to it. Before this point has been reached, however, the left toe has already had a great deal of pressure on it.

I have experimented on this subject and got other people to observe my left foot very closely during my swing, and I have found that half-way down in the downswing, which is the moment of maximum effort, my left toe is trying to dig its way into the ground harder than at any other time...

By the time the shot is finished one should be able to do away with the right foot altogether, but I think the question of a good or bad drive has been decided before then. The important question is how the weight is distributed at the top. If the body is balanced at that point, then the finish will naturally be right.

In iron-club play, except in a full cleek shot, the transference of weight is not quite the same as with wooden clubs.

The real difference is this, that the left leg does nearly all the weight-carrying throughout the stroke, and the shorter the shot the more noticeably is this so.

At the same time we must have some use of the right leg. The extent of that use is this : when we start the shot the right will be carrying most of the weight. After we have once started the swing we can very nearly do without it."

Reference : 'Present-Day Golf' By George Duncan And Bernard Darwin, Illustrated By Photographs By G. W. Beldam, London Hodder And Stoughton Limited 20 Warwick Square, E.C.4 PART I By George Duncan, Chapter V. The Transference of Weight, page 37, page 40. Open Champion 1920, Match-play winner 1913, British Ryder Cup Captain 1929.

"In the theoretically perfect swing the left arm and the shaft of the club form a straight line from the left shoulder to the ball at the time of club-head impact with the ball." Louise Suggs

A Low Handicap - Say, 5 or 6 (1922) By Harry Vardon

"A great deal of unnecessarily bad golf is played in this world.

How To Play Golf By Harry Vardon Open ChampionThe people who go on playing it, year in and year out, with unquenchable hope and enthusiasm, constitute the game's mainstay, for their zeal is complete, and zeal that remains unabated in the face of long-sustained adversity is the most powerful constituent in the whole fabric of a prosperous pastime.

All the same, these chronic sufferers from foozling would like to play better than they do.

And they could play better.

There is no reason why a physically sound individual, who takes up the game before old age with the determination to succeed at it, should fail to develop from justifying a tolerably low handicap - say, 5 or 6.

After that, everything must depend upon the person's inborn faculties as a golfer.

As a rule, it is some very simple error of ways that retards progress; an error that becomes more or less perpetuated in the system."

The Gist of Golf By Harry VardonReference : 'The Gist of Golf' by Harry Vardon Illustrated From The Photographs Posed by the Author' New York George H. Doran Company Copyright © 1922. Chapter I, The Driving Swing With Some Advice Concerning Clubs and The Grip, page 11. Open Champion 1896, 1898, 1899, 1903. American Champion, 1900.

Source : 'The Gist of Golf' from the Internet Archive Universal Library

Or download here as PDF eBook

Download : Same as extract of 'The Driving Swing' With Some Advice Concerning Clubs and the Grip in Golf Illustrated, November, 1921. Courtesy LA84 Foundation

Visit The Open Championship Official Site

"Always the club is so held that full benefit is derived from the wrists." Percy Alliss

Michael Bannon The 6 Step Golf Lesson

Coach to Golf Superstar Rory McIlroy and National Player Victoria Bradshaw, Michael Bannon guides you through his 6 Step Golf Lesson. 2 DVD Video. Available on Amazon : Six Steps to Better Golf [DVD] [2009]

"And it was when I was twenty-one that I began to study and learn golf in real earnest. I have said enough to show that a boy need not grow up from babyhood "teethed on a golf club handle" and play the game diligently in his young days in order to excel at it." Harry Vardon

The Elements of The Game (1924) By Cecil Leitch

"The word "swing" implies an action that is smooth and regular, and calls to mind the movement to and fro of a pendulum. This smooth, rhythmical movement, is what every beginner must try to acquire, and to do so, she must look upon the arms as an extension of the shaft of the club. The club-head is going to do the actual hitting of the ball, and it is to be propelled by a twisting action of the body.

Cecil Leitch Open Champion

Cecil Leitch

In order to accomplish this action, the player must plant her feet firmly on the ground and feel that her weight is thrown on to her heels. Falling forward on to the toes at the beginning of the swing, throws the whole machine out of gear, and any mistake made at this stage of the shot cannot afterwards be rectified. "Well begun is half done" might well be applied to the act of playing a golf shot.

Now the player is ready to swing. The first thing to move must be the club-head, and this is done by a slight tightening up of the wrists, chiefly the left.

The left arm must be kept as straight as possible, during the backward and downward swing. If this is done and the head is kept still, there will be small margin for error in the actual twisting of the body.

It is an impossibility for a player to jump at the ball without moving her head, a very common fault with beginners. Throughout the whole of the swing the player must try to imagine that the club-head is travelling around the inside rim of a wheel, of which the body forms the axis.

It is often said the club-head should be taken back along an imaginary straight line at the back of the ball. This remark has confused some beginners who, in trying to carry out this instruction, have made the stroke doubly difficult by stretching beyond their natural reach. Every single action of the golfer must be free, and anything that feels uncomfortable cannot be right. This imaginary line which the club-head should follow is really a slightly convex curve on the ground.

Some players take the club-head along the ground in this way for about 8 or 10 inches, and are said to have a "flat" swing; those to whom it comes more natural to bring the club-head from the ground after the first 2 or 3 inches of its journey, are said to have an "upright" swing.

I explain the meaning of these terms as they appear later on.

Reference : 'Golf Simplified' By Cecil Leitch. Chapter I A Chapter For Beginners - The Elements of The Game, Swing; The Use of The Iron. Winner Ladies' Open Championship, 1914, 1920, 1921; English Ladies' Close Championship, 1914, 1919; Ladies' Championship of France, 1912, 1914, 1920 and 1921; Canadian Ladies' Championship, 1921. Thornton Butterworth LTD. 15 Bedford Street, London, W.C.2. First Published 1924.

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Get The Feel Of The Club by Robert T. "Bobby" Jones

Robert T. "Bobby Jones" lessons. Volume 2 The Short Game. Presented by Jack Nicklaus
Available on Amazon : Bobby Jones - How I Play Golf Collection, The - Vol. 2 - The Short Game [VHS]
'How Bobby Jones Got Started' By O. B. Keeler The American Golfer LA84 Foundation

"Many a scratch player golfer and professional has struggled away to cure a fault which he assumed to be in the swing, when all the time the answer lay in the fundamentals of the grip. Perhaps as few as 5 per cent of club golfers grip the club correctly and as few as 1 per cent really understand the intricacies of the grip." Vivien Saunders

What 90 Per Cent of Slicers Do (1931) By Henry Cotton

"I am writing this chapter at home after having spent every day of this week in the company of a young American golfer who plays for his university and who wished to cure a slice before the beginning of the term. I will take you along with this player, although his experience may be greater than yours because he has a handicap of scratch. This, however, will only make it the more difficult to cure his fault. He started five days ago with the most wicked slice I have ever seen.

It was tremendous, the ball travelling almost like a boomerang, and he never failed to slice - it was absolutely consistent. Added to that, he drove the ball low. One always associates a slice with a high shot, but this was no ordinary slice, so that our friend had another fault to overcome.

We started on the practice tee with fifty balls. What a slice! Ball after ball went sliding away into the rough on the right with great regularity. I looked at his grip. It was what is known as the "hooker's variety" - that is, he had put his right hand under the shaft, probably with the idea of preventing the slice.

He had tried to make two things wrong into a right. His back swing was flat, but there was something wrong with his body work. He turned his right shoulder through before his club came anywhere near the ball and thus threw the club head "miles" outside the ball from the very start. That was the root of his trouble.

He was doing what 90 per cent. of slicers do. it is no use swinging flat if you do not keep inside all the time, and this player was swinging outside in the most pronounced manner.

Now how to cure that.

T Henry Cotton GolfKeep your left shoulder high, use a flat back-swing, keeping the right elbow underneath the shaft and close to the body. Pivot well, and as you bring the club down hit late - and hold back. It is so easy to sway forward when trying to hit the ball a long way, but you must hold the body back as the club meets the ball.

It has taken four days to teach my pupil to swing properly, and he has achieved a certain amount of success, but he is still unreliable because he will sway.

You cannot all expect to cure a slice in half an hour. Your error may be easily cured if you are a beginner ; but if you have had a slice for some time take a lesson to be sure that you have a method of curing it, and then work it out for yourself.

It may take longer that way, but you will learn a great deal by doing this."

Reference : 'Golf Being a short treatise for the use of young people who aspire to proficiency in the Royal and Ancient Game' by T. Henry Cotton. Part II. Chapter VI Faults and their remedies, page 135. The Aldin Series, Eyre & Spottiswoode (Publishers) Ltd. First published 1931.

Download : 'GOLF Being a short treatise for the use of young people who aspire to proficiency in the Royal and Ancient Game' By Henry Cotton. Part II. Back To The Beginning. Chapter I The drive. We go back to the grip. Chapter VI. Faults And Their Remedies, including This Slicing Business and In Conclusion First Published March, 1931. Fifth Edition 1936. British Open Champion 1934.

Available on Amazon : Golf, Being a short treatise for the use of young people who aspire to proficiency in the Royal and Ancient Game

"About ninety-five percent of the people playing golf, swing out of line and do not know it. They swing more or less diagonally across the line of play from outside to inside, and if the club head is late, the ball is struck a glancing blow which causes it to start off to the left and then curve to the right. If the club head is on time with the club handle, the ball will start off to the left and continue flying straight off line to the left. Swinging out of line is caused by faulty shoulder action." Seymour Dunn

How Should We Learn (1933) By Joyce Wethered

Joyce Wethered Hitting The Ball 1933"It is purely a matter for individual taste whether the technical side of golf interests us or merely bores the player by the difficulties and problems it presents.

If it happens to possess some attractions, then all the better, because it is scarcely possible to become a really skilled player unless some effort is made to investigate the more serious side of the game.

Broadly speaking, there are three ways of learning to play golf -

  1. By professional tuition,
  2. By personal observation and imitation, and lastly,
  3. By reading books of instruction.

Many professionals claim that book instruction is their best ally, as learners from this source are compelled to apply to them to get them out of their difficulties.

That may be true in some instances."

Reference : 'Golfing Memories and Methods' by Joyce Wethered. 'Technical Golf I. How Should We Learn Our Golf?' Page 79. Open Champion 1922, 1924, 1925, 1929. English Champion 1920, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924. With 54 Illustrations Second Impression. London Hutchinson & CO. (Publishers) LTD. Made and Printed in Great Britain at the Mayflower Press, Plymouth 1933.

Download : 'How Should We Learn Our Golf?' Including 'VII. On Putting', by Joyce Wethered.

Joyce Wethered Grip - British Golf Museum

The Concept Of The Golf Swing by Donna White

Donna White 1976 U.S. Amateur Champion, Tied 2 1982 U.S. Women' s Open. 20 year LPGA tour player and teacher in 'The Long Game' DVD. Available on Amazon.

"The mental picture suggested by the idea of sweeping the ball away may be instinct with rhythm, but it does not suggest that dash, that speed, that crispness, that "pinch," that "nip," which is of the essence of the modern professional's action." Ernest Jones

Just The Same (1937) By Archie Compston

"It seems to me, Archie, that fashions in the golf swing change as quickly as they do in women's clothes. We are told one thing and no sooner are we beginning to learn it that someone comes along, tells us it is all wrong, and tries to teach us another."

"Yes, of course, taken over a long period, the ball has had a lot to do with that. In the days of the guttie, for instance, the old Scottish school played with a flat swing and the old palm grip.

Vardon, who must have been a pretty smart fellow, came along with a finger grip and an upright swing - and beat them to it.

Well, if he did it so well, why did his swing go out of fashion?

Archie Compston Go Golfing Changing Fashions In The Golf Swing

Archie Compston

The ball again. It is so resilient now that the trouble is not to get it up, as it was in his day, but to keep it down.

An upright swing gets it up, a flat one keeps it down.

"But even now there is no standardized golf swing, no swing that is universally recognized as the golfer's ideal. Competent teachers are still teaching us widely different methods of play - or so it seems to me".

No. They may appear to differ, but the fundamentals are just the same.

"Such as?"

The straight left arm at and through the ball - rigidity in the left side a split second before the moment of impact - the head-brake - body-balance - making the left and right sides synchronize, work in harmony with each other - and so on.

"All the same I still stick to my point. From my own experience I can definitely say that I have been taught absolutely different things by various men whose names ring high in your profession."

No. The principles are the same, but there are a multitude of variations. When a pupil comes to me, for instance, I might try him out with three different kinds of stance and three different kinds of swing - but the principles underlying all of them would really be the same."

Reference : 'Go Golfing' with Archie Compston and Henry Longhurst. Chapter 12. Changing Fashions In The Golf Swing, page 65. Duckworth, 3 Henrietta Street, London, W.C.2. First published in 1937 All rights reserved.

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"The index finger is in fact "triggered" against the side of the shaft. This enables me to impart more power at impact without additional effort, without upsetting the rhythm of the swing. It also helps to prevent the wrists being rolled over as the ball is being struck." Bobby Locke

The Orthodox Vardon Grip (1949) By Charles Whitcombe

Charles Whitcombe 1949


"The first point to attend in acquiring a good swing is to hold the club in the right way.

Here again the man who thinks too much about hitting the ball and wants to do all the work himself, is pretty sure to go wrong, because his instinct is to grasp the club with the old-fashioned hammer grip with the shaft well home in the palm of the right hand.

He nearly always wants also to grip the club too tightly, with a subconscious idea that the power he puts into his grasp of the club will somehow translate itself into power in the stroke. Nothing of course could be farther off the mark.

Too tight a grip creates a tension in all the other muscles of the arm and introduces a feeling of stiffness into the swing, which is the very last thing he wants.

For a while, when shafts of the "lead pencil" type came into fashion, I found golfers slipping into the opposite fault. The trouble with a shaft that is too thin is that the player is forced to hold it entirely in his fingers, with his hands too much on top of the shaft - a bad position from the point of view of power or control.

A point that I should like to impress upon every player is that he should grasp the club fairly lightly. The grip of the thumb and the first two fingers of each hand should be firm, but there should be no suggestion of tightness. The hands are only the hinge by which the player swings a comparatively light club, not a clamp to enable him to wield a sledge-hammer.

The V of Each Hand On Top of The Shaft

When Harry Vardon came along to set a model of style for all the world, golfers were still playing the old "guttie" ball.

The difficulty with the "guttie" was to get it to rise in the air, and Vardon with his open stance and overlapping grip set the example of a style that made it easy to get the ball up.

Golfers everywhere copied his "overlapping" grip, with the little finger of the right hand riding in the hollow between the knuckles of the first and second fingers of the left, and the V between the thumb and forefinger of each hand on top of the shaft.

One of the features of this grip is that it entrusts the guiding of the club chiefly to the thumb and forefinger of the left hand, and makes it natural to keep the face of the club "open" an so helps to get the ball up in the air.

It is the grip used by nine first-class golfers out of ten, and it is the grip that I always try to get my own pupils to adopt. This may seem strange, because it is not the grip that I use myself.

My own grip, as most people know, is an interlocking grip, with the little finger of the right hand intertwined with the forefinger of the left. Well, there is nothing wrong with the interlocking grip.

In fact, considering how few people use it, it has had a remarkable measure of success. On this side of the Atlantic it is used by my brothers Ernie (from whom I learnt it) and Reggie.

On the other side of the Atlantic it is the grip that has always been favoured by Gene Sarazen and by Francis Ouimet, the American Walker cup Captain. On the other hand the interlocking grip has the disadvantage that it is only suited to certain types of hands. So I consider it safer for every beginner to start off with the orthodox overlapping grip.

One of the great advantages of either the overlapping or the interlocking grip is that it helps the hands to work together.

Modification Due To The Development of The Ball

To a beginner, then, I recommend the orthodox Vardon grip.

As he improves, however, he may want to make a variation, which I think is of much more importance in my own grip than the mere superficial difference between the overlap and the interlock.

GOLF By Charles Whitcombe 1949The difference is in the position of the left thumb. I have said that in the orthodox overlapping grip the thumb and forefinger of both hands are along the shaft. In my own case the left thumb is across the shaft.

This modification is due to the development of the ball. With the modern lively ball there is no longer any difficulty in getting the ball up in the air. Instead, the difficulty of the hard hitter is to prevent the ball soaring too high !

Now I think that when the left thumb is along the shaft there is a tendency for it to exert too much pressure as the club comes onto the ball, and so it tends to keep the face open.

With the thumb across the shaft there is no such tendency, and it is easier to bring the club on to the ball with the face dead square or even tending to shut, and so keep the ball low."

Reference : 'GOLF' By Charles Whitcombe With A Foreword And A Chapter On The Rules BY Robert H. K. Browning London Editor of "Golfing" Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd. First published 1949. Made in Great Britain at The Pitman Press, Bath. Lesson II The Overlapping Grip page 14 - 19.

"The world's finest player of the long iron shots is Henry Cotton. He can put the ball within ten yards of the pin with a No. 2 iron from distances for which most people would want to take a wooden club. He has an amazing ability to combine power and accuracy in the long iron shots." Charles Whitcombe

Most Common Fault In The Grip (1952) By Julius Boros

"Normally, these faults result from a bad grip, an incorrect stance, an improper pivot, or some other fundamental of the game which already has been discussed.

However, here is your opportunity to check your faults, with the cause followed by the cure.

If the following discussion does not cure your common faults of the game, then by all means see your professional. He is the man best qualified to speak on your own individual golf problems.

The first place any professional looks for a golf fault is in the grip, your only contact with the club.

The most common fault in the grip is having the right hand too far over on the shaft.

How To Play Par Golf, by Julius Boros, Winner of the 1952 American Open ChampionshipIf this is the situation, then you are undoubtedly slicing almost very shot.

We told you in the chapter on intentional slicing and hooking that changing your grip can bring these about for you deliberately.

So, if that can be done intentionally by changing the grip, then you can be sure that the same will result from doing it accidentally.

So, check that grip.

If the right hand should be too far under the shaft, then that will cause a hook.

The hands should be close together so that they can perform as a single unit, and the "V's" formed by the thumbs and index fingers should point to the right shoulder.

Reference : Julius Boros' book on 'How To Play Par Golf', Chapter 16 Common Faults. First Impression 1957, The World's Work (1913) Ltd., Kingswood, Surrey. This is a Cedar Special No. 87. Winner of the 1952 American Open Championship, at Northwood Country Club in Dallas, by no less than four strokes, beating both Hogan and Snead, Golfer of the Year and leading money winner. He became the oldest PGA Championship winner at the age of 48 in 1968.

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"We must not try to lift either the club head or the ball, and we shall never be good golfers until we can feel that we pull the club head along as we swing, along and not up and down." Percy Boomer

Five Fundamentals of The Game (1953) By Bobby Locke

HOW I PLAY GOLF By Bobby Locke Four Times British Open Champion, 1953

How I Play Golf The Five Fundamentals of The Game By Bobby Locke Four Times British Open Champion
"My success in golf has been founded on seeking perfection in what I term the five fundamentals of the game." Bobby Locke

"My golf success has been founded on seeking perfection in what I term the five fundamentals of the game:

Bobby Locke British Open Champion 1950

Bobby Locke

I state categorically that it is impossible to be a good golfer unless you get it fixed in your mind that these are the essentials and concentrate on getting each one right in that sequence. I feel my method is one of the simplest to follow, though I do not suggest for one moment that golf is an easy game.

It is my intention here to explain how I play golf - and once again let me stress those five fundamentals, in the sequence I have given.

I am not a theorist. I have never filled my head with a string of confusing injunctions: head down, left arm straight, left heel off the ground, and all that sort of thing.

Too many people approach a golf shot with their heads buzzing with a variety of tips and hints- 'Do this', 'Don't forget that', 'Remember not to do the other'. Wrong, absolutely wrong!

Make sure that you have those five fundamentals correct, that at all times you are relaxed, and from then on it is a matter of practice, practice and more practice.

And remember you must avoid tension, which is the ruin of good, consistent golf. How to make sure that you are doing the right things?

Well, if you read on, study carefully the illustrations I have given, and faithfully copy my methods, you will be right.

I have always aimed at achieving a perfect swing. In the course of this book I shall include some 'don'ts', but I want the reader always to remember that it is the perfect swing we are seeking and that the perfect swing depends on those five fundamentals."

Bobby Locke Winner of the Goodall Round Robin Tournament, 1949

Winner Bobby Locke
Bobby Locke beating Byron Nelson, back row, third from the right. Sam Snead, back row, third from left. Wykagyl Country Club and read more about this victory


Bobby Locke Winner of The Goodall Round Robin 1947 and Winner of The British Open 1952


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"I state categorically that it is impossible to be a good golfer unless you get it fixed in your mind that these are the essentials and concentrate on getting each one right in that sequence." Bobby Locke

The Greatest Golfers (1956) By Norman Von Nida

Norman von Nida Australia Open Champion Golf Is My Business"The position in golf history of the Parks, the Morrises, Alan Robertson, John Ball, Taylor, Vardon, Ouimet, Hagen, Jones and Sarazen is too secure ever to be disputed, and certainly I for one am not going to do so.

Here I intend to deal only with golfers of my generation. First, the great golfers - I say there are five; next the near-great; and then the good golfers, those who are just knocking at the door. In nearly twenty-five years of professional golf and tournament play all over the world, I believe I have played with all the best contemporary golfers.

But before going on to them, I must just mention (as any golf lover must) two of the greats of a generation just before mine, namely, Walter Hagen and Robert Tyre Jones Jnr.

These two great players dominated golf in the twenties almost to the complete exclusion of all others. Between 1924 and 1930 they won every British Open - then the major world golf title - except one, the 1925 Open, which was won at Prestwick by another American Jim Barnes.

Greatest Golfers of Our Time

  1. Ben Hogan "Mechanical Man of Golf"
  2. Slammin' Sammy Snead "Most Natural Swinger"
  3. Bobby Locke "The Majestic Maestro"
  4. Byron Nelson "Mr. Golf"
  5. Henry Cotton "Best British Golfer since Vardon, Taylor, and Braid"

Many people will disagree with my rankings.

But I have played with all the golfers I have mentioned. That is the best way of judging that I know!"

Reference : 'Golf Is My Business' by Norman Von Nida With Muir Maclaren. First Published By Frederick Muller Ltd. 1956 Copyright © 1956 Norman Von Nida And Muir Maclaren, Part II Chapter Eleven, The Great, The Near-Great, And The Good Golfers, Page 158. Australia Open Champion, P.G.A. Champion, Dunlop Masters Winner, 1948.

Download : The Great, The Near-Great, And The Good Golfers By Norman Von Nida.

Download : 'King of the Links' The Story of Bobby Locke by Ronald Norval, golfing correspondent of the Cape Times, Maskew Miller Limited Cape Town Printed by The Standard Press, Limited, 44/46 Commercial Street Cape Town.

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"Sometimes when I glance over the records of the history of the game, I feel a twinge of regret that it was not possible for me to play with, or even to see, such giants of the past as Allan Robertson, David Strath, the Dunns, Willie Campbell, Willie Park, senior, or the famous young Tom Morris. Golf is great to-day, but it must have been great in those days also, even if there was less of it than there is now." Harry Vardon

"The older method, as one is inclined to call Jones's, is still really the latest thing, because while it is classical, it is topical and still modern - like the straight bat in cricket or the straight left in boxing - and so will live on for ever." Henry Cotton

Inside An Ideal Golf School (1959) By Henry Cotton

"LEFT: The inside of an ideal golf school I built in Monte Carlo, on a spacious, well-lit floor above the big cinema in the Place du Casino.

Inside An Ideal Golf School By Henry Cotton Monte Carlo 1959

RIGHT: In my own net can be seen:

  • The bench for the teacher - most essential.
  • The automatic ball-teeing machine.
  • The basket for the balls.
  • The short and long weighted clubs - muscle strengtheners and looseners.
  • The long pincers to re-tee a ball which falls off the rubber tee, to save stooping.
  • The harness for the elbow-spreading pupil saves many words.
  • The series of charts to explain theories better - they often save endless explaining.
  • The illustrated golf books on the table - again to endorse your opinion with doubting pupils.
  • Assorted clubs with different grip thicknesses and lengths of shaft - most necessary.
  • A screen, to show stills and to project films, my own and those of pupils - not fully appreciated.
  • A mirror, full-length, very necessary to all teachers.
  • A large thick coconut mat - these are costly and very expendable, but not better than rubber.
  • A long-shafted wooden hammer (to keep heads down!) to demonstrate with for the knocking in of the nail,
  • and to illustrate to those who have never realized that a teed golf ball is hit along and not always pinched with a downward hit."

A Teed Golf Ball Is Hit Along By Henry Cotton 1959

Reference : 'Henry Cotton My Golfing Album' Country Life Limited London Published in 1959 by Country Life Limited Tavistock Street London WC2 Printed in Great Britain by Balding & Mansell Ltd London and Wisbech Second impression 1960 © HENRY COTTON 1959 Page 126

Download : "Had the Dunlop 65 golf ball named in honour of his round of 65 in the Open at Royal St. Georges in 1934" OBITUARY Henry Cotton, MBE. Open Champion 1934, 1937 and 1948. © GOLF GREENKEEPING Jan. 11 1988

"When a shot is unsatisfactory, first study the exact behavior of the ball's flight - its direction and trajectory at the outset, its behavior when well on its way, and finally its behavior after alighting. When this is determined, try to reason out how the club must have struck the ball to cause such a result. Then, by a review of the mechanics of the golf swing, figure out which fundamental or fundamentals must have been violated." Seymour Dunn, 1922

Cause Before Effect (1969) By John Jacobs

"Ask a hundred golfers what are their faults, and ninety-nine will produce clichés of swing technique: 'Head up", 'I sway', 'My right elbow isn't in the right position', and so on, ad infinitum.

The one who doesn't will usually be a good player, or potentially a good player. Through experience or study - or the help of a competent professional - he will have learned to put cause before effect.

He will know that, fundamentally, a golfer can only commit three faults singly or in combination: that every bad shot he hits happens, at root, because at impact:

  1. The club face is open or closed,
  2. The line of swing is out-to-in or in-to-out, and,
  3. The angle of club head approach is too steep or too shallow.

This one-in-a-hundred will not need to consume millions of words of printed swing theory, take endless lessons from thirty different teachers, hit five hundred experimental shots a day.

He will be able to tell from the flight of the ball what is going wrong at impact, and from that will know exactly what adjustments he must make to produce his best golf."

Reference : 'Play Better Golf with John Jacobs. Chapter 12. Faults, Causes and cures reviewed'. Cover design by Chris Evans. Based on the Yorkshire Television Series written in collaboration with Ken Bowden. Stanley Paul & Co Ltd, Copyright © Yorkshire Television 1969.

Available on Amazon : Play Better Golf with John Jacobs : Based on the Yorkshire Television Series

Download : "He was the principle designer of the modern golf swing. His forthright views were gaining considerable traction in the golfing press and he had the temerity to contradict Henry Cotton's view of the golf swing in an article he wrote. Before Jacobs, with some obvious exceptions, golf professionals operated more like clairvoyants, so the learning of the game was for many shrouded in mystery." The Greatest Teacher in the World OGRO Working for the Golf Range Industry

To Make It Go Up And Put Backspin On It by Gene Littler

Gene Little 1961 U.S. Open Champion, in Liberty Mutual's '18 Tips from 18 Legends Hosted by Bob Goalby 1968 Masters Champion VHS Available on Amazon : Liberty Mutual's 18 Tips from 18 Legends of Golf

"The real secret of keeping the ball low is to keep the hands well ahead of the club-head right through impact. To do that one must keep a firm left wrist." Bobby Locke

Learn The Fundamentals (1975) By Jack Grout

"Let me right away tell you an infrequently acknowledged truth about golf. It is a highly complex maneuver in which every bone, muscle and fiber in your body has a certain function to perform in a certain way at a certain time.

No teacher could possibly explain all those functions, and no person could possibly execute them consciously. He would have to be a human computer.

Now, before you turn to tennis, I want to quickly add that it is possible to teach and learn certain fundamentals of the golf swing.

Once you more or less master these fundamentals, it does become possible repeatedly to bring your bones and muscles into play in more or less the right way at more or less the right time. You won't put it all together perfectly on every shot.

Let Me Teach You Golf As I Taught Jack Nicklaus by Jack GroutEven Jack Nicklaus mishits far more shots, to some degree, than he strikes 100 percent "pure".

But, once you learn the fundamentals, you will excel as a golfer for as long as you maintain your desire and willingness to play and practice.

The Six Fundamentals You Should Master : Set Up Correctly; A Proper Grip; Steady Head; Proper Footwork; Full Extension; Quiet Hands."

Reference : 'Let Me teach You Golf As I Taught Jack Nicklaus'. Six Fundamentals Jack Grout with Dick Aultman Illustrated by Jim McQueen Atheneum / SMI New York 1975 Copyright © 1975 by Jack Grout and Dick Aultman Designed by Kathleen Carey. Chapter Three Concepts of the Swing.

"A good follow-through is essential to playing a powerful long game; it prevents the ball being undercut, helps to give it a longer flight, and, most important of all, it ensures straight driving; because, when the follow-through is properly carried out, the club-head travels after the ball in the same line in which it is intended to be driven." Willie Park Junior

Mental And Emotional Approach (1989) By Ray Floyd

"I'm going to dwell on the mental aspects of this game.

Once you have a swing or a stroke that works reasonably well, your mental and emotional approach becomes about 95 percent of the package that determines how well and how consistently you score.

That's a well known, often-published, often-discussed fact, but too many amateurs, as well as a few professionals, don't pay attention.

At least they seem to forget it as soon as they hit the first tee.

Then they resume worrying about their setups, their grips, their backswings, and all the other facets of the swing.

Reference : 'From 60 Yards In, How to Master Golf's Short Game' with Larry Dennis. Photography by Tony Roberts. Illustrations by Ken Lewis. Copyright © 1989 by Ray Floyd Enterprises, Inc. Photographs © 1989 by Tony Roberts. Harper Perennial A Division of HarperCollins Publishers.

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"I must emphasize that unless a player gets his or her grip correct trouble begins immediately. If the hands are not placed correctly on the club the club-face will be either 'open' or 'closed' at impact and the ball will go off line." Bobby Locke

Know Your Golf (2004) By Peter Alliss

"Improve your game or impress your fellow golfers.

Know Your Golf Understanding The Rules with Peter Alliss the "Voice of Golf"Packed with over two hours of golfing excellence, 'Know Your Golf' was filmed at some of the finest courses in Europe.

If you are a proficient golfer, this in-depth collection will take your game to new levels.

If you are a beginner, you will discover from the experts, everything you need to know about how to resolve complicated and simple rule problems.

With the 'Voice of Golf' Peter Alliss."

Reference : 'Know Your Golf with Peter Alliss' DVD, also featuring Gary Alliss, "One of the UK's top 25 golf coaches" - Golf Monthly. Copyright © 2004 Classic Pictures Holdings Limited. Directed by Robert Garofalo. Produced by Lyn Beardsall. Associate Producer Jo Garofalo. Running Time 135 mins approx.

Available on Amazon : Know Your Golf - Peter Alliss DVD

Understanding The Rules With Peter And Gary Alliss

Featuring Gary Alliss "One of the U.K. top 25 golf coaches" - Golf Monthly Over 100 examples of situations you could encounter in both match and stroke play golf. Available on Amazon : Know Your Golf - Peter Alliss DVD

"If we can find out exactly how it is that these eminent fellows arrived at their elevation, what in the world is to prevent our joining them there?" Horace G. Hutchinson


About Curing The Slice (2014) By Vivien Saunders

"Many thanks for the link to your site. It is great. Thanks for the mention on it.

I have just produced a new series of 6 instructional DVDs, one of which on the long game focuses on the slice cure and have also set it out on the DVD re practising etc.

I also have one of my books Advanced Golf up on Kindle and more to follow.

The great thing about curing the slice is to get the clubface and head working correctly where so many pros try to tackle the out to in swing first which as you know is hopeless and the wrong way round."

Source : 'Vivien Saunders, 1977 Women's British Open Champion. Managing Director, OBE PhD FCMI (Solicitor - retired) Abbotsley Hotel, Golf & Country Club 24 September 2014

Key Learning Point

by Bobby Locke - A slight drag
  • "And always remember that the first movement of the downswing is a slight drag with the left hand, (page 88).
  • Its use at this point also starts the main weight of the body gradually moving over from the right foot to the left as the left heel returns to the ground,
  • Notice that my chin is still in its original position,
  • As I said earlier, it keeps the club-head 'inside' as it goes down, prevents looping and, if the full follow-through is correct, it also prevents slicing (page 125)."


Cambridge double-click dictionary Site Enabled


by Seymour Dunn - Not Centrifugal fore

"It has been said that the power which drives a golf ball is centrifugal. It is not centrifugal force. Centrifugal force is generated by the swing, but it is not the force which drives the ball."

Reference : ORIGINAL Golf Fundamentals 'Some Facts About The Golf Swing' By Seymour Dunn, of The Dunns of Musselburgh, Scotland. Published 1922, 1930, 1934

by Milan Coh - If

"The official definition of learning (UNESCO/ISCED 1993) reads as follows: "Learning is any permanent change in behaviour, acquaintance, knowledge, comprehension, viewpoints, skills or abilities that cannot be ascribed to physical growth or development of inherited behavioural patterns."

Learning - in various forms and situations - is a part of man's everyday life. Learning changes our personality; it is a process of receiving, acquiring, recognising, developing and expanding our horizons. Motor learning is characterised by specific features and it incorporates laws that have to be observed throughout the various manifestations of an athlete's motor activity. It is the process of acquiring, completing and using motor information, knowledge, experience and motor programs. Performing a certain movement is only possible if a suitable motor programme for it exists. The motor process starts with a definition of the desired result and consists of three interconnected phases: the phase of basic movement coordination, the phase of accurate movement coordination and the phase of movement coordination stabilisation under changeable and difficult circumstances. A precondition for efficient motor learning is an optimally accurate notion of movement which is based on the visual followed by the kinesthetic processing of information."

Reference : 'MOTOR LEARNING IN SPORT' UDC 796.012: 591.513 Milan Čoh, Dragana Jovanović-Golubović, Milovan Bratić Faculty of Sport, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia Faculty of Physical Education, University of Niš, Niš, Serbia and Montenegro 2005 Golf page 49.

by Dr. Jim Suttie, PGA Professional - Automatically release (?)

"Misconception 13: The golfer should try to consciously release the club. This definition of release means to pronate and supinate the hands and arms and to consciously try to turn the club over through the impact area.

Reasons: Correct body (shoulder and hip) rotation will automatically create hand and arm rotation. Any conscious effort to open or close the clubhead, either on the backswing or downswing, will most likely create an inconsistency in your ball striking.

Any conscious effort to try to release the clubhead is a compensation for poor body rotation. If the golf swing is a circular motion in which centrifugal force is produced, the inertia and the weight of the swinging clubhead will automatically create the release."

Reference : 'Appendix 3 Golf Swing Misconceptions by Dr. Jim Suttie, PGA Professional Cog Hill Golf Course Lemont, Illinois, The PGA Manual of Golf by Gary Wiren PGA Master Professional, Ph.D. MacMillan USA Copyright © 1991 by The Professional Golfer's Association of America.

by Deng Yinke - Chui wan (strike pellet) of ancient China

"Chui wan (strike pellet), one of a number of colorful ball games of ancient China, is believed to be a precursor of the modern outdoor game of golf.

Ancient Chinese Inventions Deng YinkeChui wan was originally called bu da (walk and hit), a game in which the player scored points by hitting the pellet into a hole in the ground.

Tang Dynasty women playing the ball game bu da.

In a painting from the Song Dynasty two children are shown playing chui wan, and in the Yuan Dynasty, Wan Jing (Classic of Chui Wan) was published.

This book says Emperor Huizong of the Song Dynasty and Emperor Zhangzong of the Jin Dynasty were both enthusiastic players of chui wan.

A Ming painting, Ming Xuanzong Xingle Tu (Emperor Xuanzong of the Ming Dynasty on a Pleasure Ride), shows the Emperor, in plain clothes, striking the pellet in the field.

The painting also shows the course, the cup, and colourful banners. The club, ball, course, and rules of chui wan were similar to those of modern golf."

Reference : 'Ancient Chinese Inventions' by Deng Yinke. Translated from the original Chinese by Wang Pingxing. Golf, page 141. Cambridge University Press. Copyright © China Intercontinental Press 2010. © Cambridge University Press 2011.

by Louise Suggs - I wanted to learn to be able to do the same

"I was first introduced to Bobby when I was about seven or eight years old. I was fortunate to really get to know Bobby when Eastlake Golf Club gave me an honorary membership at the age of 16, after I won the 1940 Georgia State Amateur. I would sit for hours on end at the driving range and watch my hero practice. Every now and again he'd look up and say, Want to go an play a few? We'd go out for a few holes, he, of course, with a caddie, and me carrying my own bag. I couldn't afford a caddie even though it was only 38 cents a nine.

There was one moment I remember vividly. We were on the par-3 11th at Eastlake. I asked, ". Jones, if you had one piece of advice for me in golf, what would it be?"

He didn't even have to think about it before he replied, "Just hit the heck out of it. It will come down somewhere."

Here I was, expecting this expansive dissertation from the great Bobby Jones, but I later realized that he was trying to say all you need to do is hit the golf ball. Don't get all bunged up. Just play golf.

On another occasion, I was playing with him and ended up behind a tree. I said, "Mr. Jones, what would you do here?"

He said, Well you have four shots. You can go over, under, draw it around the left, or fade it to the right. With that, he threw down four balls and did exactly those four things. I just stood there with my mouth open, thinking how much I wanted to learn to be able to do the same."

Reference : 'And That's That!' The Life Story of One of Golf's Greatest Champions Louise Suggs With Elaine Scott Foreword by Barbara Bush AuthorHouse™ LLC 1663 Liberty Drive Bloomington, IN 47403 © 2014 Louise Suggs. All rights reserved Georgia's Always on My Mind 59.

by Patty Sheehan - The skiing connection

"The skiing connection is about a theory known as the "fall line."

Translated, that's the point-to-point direct way down the hill. If you rolled a ball down a mountain, it would automatically follow gravity, wouldn't it?

You may have heard teaching professionals say recently, "All putts are straight."

Well, obviously putts are not always straight because they follow gravity and they break.

The point is that when you've figured out the break on a putt, you putt straight for the spot to the right or left of the cup, disregarding the cup. Then just let the fall line take it from there."

Reference : 'Patty Sheehan on Golf', Patty Sheehan and Betty Hicks. 'Patty Sheehan Talks Putting', page 21. Taylor Publishing Company, Dallas, Texas. Copyright © 1996 Patty Sheehan and Betty Hicks.

by Maxine Van Evera Lupo - Which prevents good timing (?!)

"Golfers who misinterpret a hitting action and set out to "kill" the ball with aggressive determination and a fast backswing always encounter difficulty.

... Although "killing" the ball appears to be an incurable affliction for most of us, remember that neither speed nor force is recommended when swinging the club or hitting the ball. Both lead to hitting primarily with the hands, which prevents good timing. Curb the killer instinct while practicing better basics to improve coordination.

Swinging and hitting, as demonstrated on page 219, can be negotiated even in slow motion, clearly indicating the hitting position at the top of the swing to be a natural physical reaction to just having the thought in mind. Pushing the clubhead away from the ball with a strong, fully extended, straight left arm and slow beginning, combined only with this predetermined intent to hit back through the ball, cocks the right elbow down at the top of the swing.

As the downswing begins, however, hitting combines with swinging, but not because you're swinging your arms and hitting with your hands. Rather you accomplish this by keeping your arms together, applying good legwork and footwork that help shift your weight left, and accelerating arm action toward the target by pulling with the strong left arm and extending the right. This helps you develop more power and better coordination by timing the weight shift with releasing the hands and clubhead through the hitting zone.

Accelerating the left arm through the hitting zone creates good timing when combined with other swing mechanics - all of which work toward preventing an early release.

The shaft and clubhead then trail behind the hands from the top, enabling the clubhead to accelerate through the ball with maximum clubhead speed. Being lazy with arm action, particularly when you're hitting only with your hands or trying to crunch it on the backswing, bends the left arm at the top of the swing.

Not only do you lose power, by losing leverage, but you throw the descent of the clubhead - or angle of attack - steeply downward, which throws the right shoulder forward. Usually accompanied by swaying back through the ball, divots are taken in front of the ball and the ball hit right on top.

Pounding straight down on the ball, as well as pulling, slicing, and hitting grounders to the left, may be attributed to just failing to hit correctly - not with the hands through the backswing but by keeping the swing center intact, turning the lower body, applying good footwork, and accelerating and extending your arms through the hitting zone.

How To Master A Great Golf Swing Maxine Van Evera Lupo 2006A basic physical, as well as mental, difference between most men and women is the more aggressive "killer instinct" of men to use a hitting action compared with the natural tendency of women to use a more gentle swinging movement.

Since swinging and hitting together in golf require keen coordination of the upper and lower body, women often need to learn how to use their hands and arms to become stronger hitters, and men often need to learn how to use their feet and legs to become less aggressive swingers."

Reference : 'How To Master A Great Golf Swing' Fifteen Fundamentals To Build A Great Swing Maxine Van Evera Lupo Illustrations by Dom Lupo Foreword by Dr. Jay Brunza Taylor Trade Publishing Lanham New York Toronto Oxford Copyright © 1992 by Maxine Van Evera Lupo First Taylor Trade Publishing edition 2006. Chapter Twenty-One Fundamental No. 14: Hitting with the Right Hand Published by Taylor Trade Publishing An imprint of The Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, Inc 4501 Forbes Boulevard, Suite 200, Lanham, Maryland 20706. Manufactured in the United Stases of America.

by Jack Nicklaus - There is nothing that I - or anyone else - can do

"I regard keeping the head very steady, if not absolutely stock still, throughout the swing as the bedrock fundamental of golf.

Jack Nicklaus Golf My WayIt is inviolable as far as I'm concerned, which is why I bring the subject up early in the book. If you are hoping to improve your game through these pages, but can't, or won't, learn to keep your head steady throughout the swing, read no farther.

There is nothing that I - or anyone else - can do for your golf game.

The reasons the head must stay steady are so obvious to me that I feel a little foolish enumerating them. But since so many handicap players do seem to move their heads around with cavalier abandon, I suppose I'd better.

They are as follows:

  1. The head, or at least the neck or the top of the spine, is the fulcrum or hub or axis of the swing. As such, any shifting of it up, down, or sideways must inhibit or weaken the spring like coiling of the body on the backswing that is so essential to the generation of proper leverage on the forward swing.
  2. Any shifting of the head, at any point from address to impact, will alter the arc and plane of the swing, which, if not a totally destructive factor, is certainly a very complicating one.
  3. Movement of the head changes the line of vision, and it tends to force the eyes to alter their image or focus. It is very difficult to hit any object you are not looking at.
  4. As the heaviest part of the body, relative to its size, the head has a strong influence on balance. Few people are agile enough to retain their full balance during the exertion of a full golf swing if their head moves.

When you think about these factors it is easy to see why a steady head is the one fundamental of golf that is universal to all "methods" and to all teaching systems throughout history.

Hitting the ball as hard as I do, I know I couldn't break 80 if I were unable to keep my head in one place throughout the swing."

Reference : 'Golf My Way The Instructional Classic, Revised and Update', Chapter 6. Golf's One Unarguable Universal Fundamental, Page 46. Jack Nicklaus with Ken Bowden. Illustrations by Jim McQueen. Simon & Schuster Paperbacks Copyright © 1974, 2005 Jack Nicklaus Copyright renewed © 2002 by Jack Nicklaus.

Available on Amazon : Golf My Way: The Instructional Classic, Revised and Updated

by Edward C. Acree - Some of the more common attitudes towards golf

"It would be impossible to describe all of the various types of attitudes toward golf and their effect upon the results which are obtained.

But after excluding occasional players and those physically or otherwise handicapped, it is believed that some of the more common attitudes toward golf are portrayed by the following characters and descriptions:

Mr. I. N. Different.

He insists that he plays golf for fun and is not concerned about the results. He makes no effort to improve his score. However, he likes the exercise and enjoys singing in the locker room quartette. He is convinced that if he took the game "seriously," he would be good at it.

Maybe he would, but he is unwilling to admit his secret desire to play better golf and to exert the efforts which are necessary in order to do so.

It is no coincidence that Messrs. Tee Jitters, M. Barrassment, and Hy Score are his constant companions.

Mr. I. Hope.

He is on the lookout for some secret grip, new stance, or other miracle which will make him a top-flight golfer overnight. He takes golf seriously and would like to improve, provided it requires only a limited amount of effort and does not necessitate foregoing some of his pet ideas.

He is willing to "try" something new once or twice, but when it fails to produce the miracle he has hoped for, it is soon discarded in favor of a pet idea. He is convinced that he was born to suffer - especially on a golf course.

For some reason, Faith and Charity seem to desert him, but he has some other companions in Messrs. Lotto Grief, Con Fusion, and Duke I. Payoff.

Mr. A. Hard Trier.

He is a fellow who really likes to play golf and has a sincere desire to improve. He devotes much time and effort in this attempt. He plays better than the average golfer. He has improved some as a result of his efforts, but the degree of improvement has not been in proportion to his efforts because of the lack of a scientific approach.

Because of his conscientious efforts to improve, there is a good possibility that he will develop into a good golfer when and if he acquires a clear mental picture of the proper mechanics.

His companions are not steady, but vary between Messrs. I. N. Consistent, Slim Satisfaction, and Count Dee Spondence.

Mr. B. A. Success.

Here is a fellow who is sufficiently enthusiastic about golf to approach it scientifically. He makes it a point to find out "why" the clock ticks. First, he determines the factors which are of major importance, and then concentrates his major efforts on the mastery of those factors.

Frequently he consults the club professional or a competent instructor in order to be sure that he is making the proper application of the correct methods

So it is only logical that Messrs. I. M. Steady, Lotto Pleasure, and King Confidence are his constant companions.

GOLF Simplified By Edward C. ACREE In Collaboration With Jock Hutchison and Bill HutchisonThe preceding analysis emphasizes the importance of developing the proper mental attitude as the first step towards playing good golf. It is a step in the right direction.

Once the first step has been taken, it is most likely that other constructive steps will follow.

What benefit does a person derive from making a scientific approach to golf?

He increases his possibility of success at golf because that approach provides him with a sense of direction."

Reference : 'GOLF Simplified' By Edward C. ACREE In Collaboration With Jock Hutchison and Bill Hutchison Introduction By Charles Chick Evans Ziff-Davis Publishing Company Chicago - New York Copyright, 1946, By Ziff-Davis Publishing Company.

by Johnny Revolta - The back of the left hand is facing the hole

"Another point I now emphasize with all my students is this:

At all times you must feel you are striking down at the ball. The back of the left hand is facing the hole - striking down.

Why do I stress this point? Too many golfers scuff, top, or hack at the ball, because they are trying to lift the ball toward the hole. The loft of the club will take care of that.

If you find the ball going high, going off to one side, or hitting and rolling, then you are scooping at the ball. It's just as if you tossed the ball into the air with your hand. It has no bite, no backspin.

When my students fall into this error, I have them try this exercise: Hit down and stop the club just ahead of the ball. Don't give me an artificial follow-through - the correct follow-through comes form centrifugal force. See that your club is hitting through the ball.

We pros sometimes talk about staying with the ball. By this we mean that the club head should sweep low through the hitting area; not just a slap at the ball.

With a driver, for instance, I feel I am hitting about two feet along the ground, not just catching the ball on the upswing. With the shorter clubs, of course, the hitting area is smaller.

Get the feeling of a broad swing. Sweep down and through the ball.

Get the full width of your swing by practising the 1-2-3 swing. Take all your distance from right to left. Feel that you are hitting through a broad area, not just a tiny round ball.

It will mean a sharp, clean stroke at the ball with plenty of biting backspin for your short shots and distance on your long irons."

Reference : Johnny Revolta's 'Johnny Revolta's 'Short Cuts To Better Golf', Revised Edition, by Johnny Revolta and Charles B. Cleveland. Illustrated by Jerry Gibbons. Copyright © 1949, 1956 by Johnny Revolta and Charles B. Cleveland. Designed by Maurice Serle Kaplan.

Download : Demonstration of 'The Revolta Formula' By Johnny Revolta The Revolta Formula

Available on Amazon : Johnny Revolta's short cuts to better golf

by Peter German and Peter Dunne - The European Golf Teachers Federation

"The European Golf Teachers Federation (EGTF) was established in 1992 to provide individuals interested in a career teaching golf to be trained to teach the game and to gain a Qualification.

The EGTF is now an internationally recognised teaching organisation with members all over the world within the golf industry.

Find a Professional European Golf Teacher near you!

If you think YOU have the potential to be a golf teacher, then the EGTF Diploma Course will give you all the necessary skills to fulfil YOUR dreams.

Source : The European Golf Teachers Federation, Bromley, Kent, United Kingdom

by Tom Mahan - Watch those moving parts

"I believe that in the execution of the golf swing there are 4 major moving parts: the body, the arms, the hands and the clubhead.

Their Proper Sequence

These travel at different speeds and develop different degrees of acceleration. Each travels in its own more or less circular path. The clubhead, in its outer circle, of course travels farther and faster than the arms, hands and body.

Obviously the body, like the hub of a wheel, moves the slowest. It must therefore be started first in the downswing.

The arms follow next in the sequence because they are the next slowest major moving part; then the hands, and, last of all, the clubhead.

Their Proper Order

In my opinion, practically every error in the full swing, and sometimes in other shots, is lack of order in the moving parts.

Any good instructor, when examining a player who is off his game, will take note of the four fundamental movements, to see if they are following the true sequence of the swing.

Usually he will find that the arrangement has been changed. For example, the player's arms may be in motion before his body starts to unwind. The club head may be leading the player's hands, long before it gets to the ball.

The instructor sets about it to put the movements back in their proper order.

Bothered With a Slice

A player comes to me for help; he's bothered with a slice. I go right back to fundamentals.

I find that in his swing the fastest moving part (the club head) has been crossing the line of flight from outside to inside. It does this because it has been allowed - or forced - to start first in the down swing.

As a result, it blocks the slower moving parts and obliges the player to draw the club head across the ball. This creates a left-to-right spin, or slice.

When the proper sequence of the moving parts is restored, the slicing disappears.

Hitting the Ground Back of the Ball

Another player may complain of hitting the ground back of the ball - "sclaffing", it used to be called. I find that the player's slowest moving part (his body) is quitting on its job.

It is not taking the lead it should at key position "HEEL", as pictured in this book.

Again, my problem is to help the player rearrange the moving parts of his swing - to "put the horse before the cart."

The Rhythm Record

I feel that the average player will be helped in developing a good sequence of these moving parts by practicing with the Rhythm Record until he can blend his moves with the music.

There are other moves involved. These I feel are minor and will be completed without further thought if the sequence is followed in a smooth, flowing manner. Practice with the record will definitely improve your ability to time the four major moving parts in their proper order.

Eventually, you will be able to increase the speed of your swing without disarranging the all-important sequence.

Have Some Notion of Rhythm

These and many other golfing ills can be corrected if the player can be taught to order the moving parts of his swing in their proper sequence.

Timing Your Golf Swing By Robert Winthorp AdamsThe professional's task would be simpler if his pupil already had some notion of rhythm, for the proper sequence of the moving parts is part and parcel of the rhythmic swing.

I start a beginner with the full shot with a short iron, then work up to the driver.

You swing all clubs in the same sequence, so the good (or bad) arrangement of the moving parts affects any club you may be swinging.

The more rhythm you can work into your swing the better will be all your shots, from drive to putt."

Reference : Contribution By Tom Mahan, President, New England Section, The Professional Golfers' Association of America, in 'Watch Those Moving Parts!', in Robert Winthrop Adams' book 'Timing Your Golf Swing With a 45 R.P.M. Adams Golf Swing Rhythm Record' Introduction by Francis Ouimet Jacket Design by Larry Lurin The Citadel Press 222 Fourth Avenue New York 3, N.Y. Copyright © 1957 by Robert Winthrop Adams.

About Tom Mahan : President New England Section P.G.A. Rhode Island Open Champion (twice) Former Champion New England P.G.A.

About The Author : Robert Winthrop Adams of Waban, Massachusetts, is a registered engineer who has an unusual hobby, the kinematics of the golf swing. He is the inventor of the Adam 'loRYTHMic Swinging Weight Scale', 'Golf Swing-O-Scope', and Adams 'Golf Timer'. The author of numerous articles on the golf swing in Golfing and Golf Illustrated, Bob Adams has lectured on this subject at various country clubs and annual meetings of the PGA (Professional Golfer's Association of America) Source : 'Timing Your Golf Swing With a 45 R.P.M. Adams Golf Swing Rhythm Record' by Robert Winthrop Adams.

by Steve Gould and D.J. Wilkinson - 'The Master Key'

"Our programme for immediate improvement outlines the most crucial areas of our swing model - what we term its essential 'DNA'.

It addresses the areas where 9 out of 10 golfers make the same mistakes and must be learnt, understood and executed by all standards of golfers.

The Hand Line Takeaway - 'The Master Key'

Learning the correct takeaway hand movement dictates everything that follows, and is the area where 9 out 10 golfers destroy the swing plane within the first few feet of the takeaway.

We call this takeaway to hip height movement 'the master key to good golf' (see page 44) and it is, without question, the most important part of the swing.

If you play to a good or average standard, cleaning up the backswing hand line could well provide the breakthrough to a higher level. With good, talented golfers we find that once the hand line has been learnt, everything else just falls into place as their natural talent allows their hands to naturally find their way into impact and beyond.

We have seen proof of this many times, especially when working with tour and club professionals. They find it easy to execute and understand.

Often they are amazed that no one has ever taught them, in detail, this most crucial area of the swing.


It is vital that the clubface is square by the time it reaches a point six inches before the ball. To do this the club, body and hands must be moving in unison.

Pre-impact, the hips must have turned 45 degrees to allow the club to swing freely into the swing's apex, the long straight line through the impact area.


The finish must also be learnt in great detail - it won't just happen.

The clubhead must maintain a sustained contact with the ball. The arms must retain their radius from the centre point of the body through to hip height.

The Golf Delusion Steve Gould and D.J. WilkinsonThese three factors are the essential requirements of the swing model - always hold them uppermost in your mind.

Each aspect is covered in different parts of this book in detail."

Reference : 'The Golf Delusion Why 9 out of 10 golfers make the same mistakes.' Introduced by Hugh Grant. Lessons and stories from the Knightsbridge Golf School by Steve Gould and D.J. Wilkinson'. First published 2009 by Elliott and Thomson Limited. Copyright © Steve Gould and D.J. Wilkinson.

The Knightsbridge Golf School, London, was founded in 1951 by Leslie King who "originally built his swing model on the actions of Ted Ray and Harry Vardon." Page 171.

Available on Amazon : The Golf Delusion: Why 9 Out of 10 Golfers Make The Same Mistakes

by Harry Vardon - Golf shots meet with strange fates

"Golf shots sometimes meet with strange fates, and I think that the queerest I ever played was at St. Andrews.

I was doing a good round until I came to the last hole. On the right of the course at this hole there is a row of houses, but they are so far away as usually to be safe.

On this occasion, however, I imparted so terrific a slice to my ball that it landed on top of one of the buildings, bounced down, and finished its career in a drain- pipe."

Reference : 'The Gist of Golf' by Harry Vardon. Illustrated From Photographs Posed By The Author. New York George H. Doran Company, 1922.

by Frank Boumphrey - Let's see what you can do!

"Aleck (Alex) Smith was one of five brothers from Carnoustie. Alex started the migration in 1898 and his brother Willie followed him a year later, followed by George and Jimmy. Finally, Mr. and Mrs. John Smith came over bringing with them the baby of the family Macdonald. They were a redoubtable golfing family.

Willie was the first to win the national opening in 1899; Alex won in 1906 and 1910, when he edged out little brother Macdonald; Macdonald went on to become the best player who never won a major. Quite a record for a single family!

Alex was the club pro at Nassau Country Club when the Travers joined.

The story goes that the fifteen year old Jerome Travers Jr. had just lost a match to a lad of his own age. Something about the young Travers struck a cord with Alex, perhaps his fire and competitiveness.

Alex was later to call Travers "the greatest competitor I have ever known."

"Do you want to become a real golfer, kid, or are you just going to dub around at this game?" Alex asked.

When told the young Travers wanted to become a real golfer Alex replied "All right, now that we understand each other let's see what you can do!"

Reference : Scottish Exiles The Great Teachers, by Frank Boumphrey Copyright ©F. B. Dec. 2006 © Society of Hickory Golfers 2005-2010

by Gene Sarazen - A sure Formula for better golf

"In the 1920's after winning the U.S. Open, I was having a lot of trouble with my swing.

As you all have no doubt done, I started experimenting with my swing.

I would pivot differently, try a more upright swing, shift the weight or keep it up front, make a larger shoulder turn. I even changed from the interlocking to the overlapping grip.

Nothing worked, and the different grip only resulted in a loss of yardage.

I studied other golfers who had streaks of wildness and noted that we all had one thing in common: we were prone to losing the club at the top.

On the other hand, greats like Hagen and Jones kept their hands firmly in place all the time.

This explained the inconsistent golf I was playing. But what could I do about it?

Then one day, after playing a round of golf with Ty Cobb, the great major league baseball player, at the Augusta Country Club, I asked him if he had any special training regimen to help him stay on top in baseball. "Gene," he said, "I carry a leaded bat around with me when I play. And during practice sessions, I run around with shoes that are weighted too. I practice swinging the bat in my room every day."

After talking to Ty, I decided the idea could be transferred to golf by means of a weighted club. I put lead pieces in the head of one of my clubs until it weighed 22 ounces. Every chance I had I would swing the club back and forth forty or fifty times, until I felt I could move it without losing my grip.

I had similar clubs all over my farm, in different rooms in various places where I was staying, and I would swing them whenever I got a chance. Gradually I developed hand action.

In a couple of years I saw a tremendous change in my game. I started to get full control of the club from start to finish, and I began to cut out the disastrous 7's and 8's that would ruin a tournament for me.

During a tournament in 1931, I noticed that my hands were in the same position at the top as they were when I was addressing the ball. I knew I had solved the problem by using the heavy club. That' s why the weighted trainer has become a regimen with me. It is the only thing that could have cured this fault.

I am very strongly in favor of this 22-ounce club for golfers who play only on week ends. A lot of these golfers play a very fine game, but the layoff from Sunday to the following Saturday would hurt even a pro's game.

Probably the heaviest thing these golfers have in their hands during the week is a cigar or a martini glass. But if they had a heavy club, they could go out on the lawn, or in the garage, and swing it back and forth. When they returned to the club the following week end, they would have a better swing than when they left the previous Sunday.

There is no doubt that the weighted club is a great training aid for the golfer who wants to stay in the groove and increase his power.

You see, you have to cure faults in a natural way.

One of the troubles with today's hurry-up golfer is that he thinks he or his pro can cure a fault in five minutes. Well, a great player can't cure a fault for weeks and weeks.

Then to make certain the correction stays with him, he has to test it under the stress of competition and the pressure of the score card and pencil. Then if it will live through that stress, he has mastered it and achieved his goal.

My career has spanned some forty-five years, and I get a great kick out of watching the modern players, the terrific power hitters, powder the ball long and straight. But it is better to get some naturalness into your swing. Mechanize it, instead of trying for the long ball as the young fellows do.

The correct grip will put this naturalness into the right groove.

And if you learn to grip the club correctly, your swing will begin to grow around your hands.

Reference : Gene Sarazen with Roger Ganem's book 'Better Golf After Fifty', Copyright © 1967 by Gene Sarazen. Harper & Row, Publishers, New York. 

Gene Sarazen made his first major breakthrough in golf by winning the 1922 U.S. Open at the age of twenty. By 1935 the Old Squire became the first golfer to win the four most important events in golf: the U.S. Open, P.G.A., Masters and British Open. Almost twenty years later, Sarazen was again winning tournaments. This time it was the 1954 P.G.A. Seniors. He repeated in 1958.

Of Marley Harris - While she was shopping

"Marley Harris, who died on August 19 aged 83, was, as Marley Spearman, one of the leading amateur lady golfers of the 1960s, having begun her career as a dancer on the West End stage.

Born Marley Joan Baker on January 11, 1928, she was the daughter of a businessman and was brought up at Wimbledon, south-west London. Marley left school early to embark on a career on the stage, joining a dance troupe which performed with The Crazy Gang at the Windmill Theatre in the West End of London.

When she was in her early 20s she married Tony Spearman, who worked in the car trade, and left the stage. The role of housewife, however, did not suit her, and she was on the lookout for a new interest when one afternoon, while she was shopping at Harrods, she saw a notice advertising free golf lessons.

Marley SpearmanShe decided to give it a try, and became hooked.

Having had her lessons, she took to practising in the garage of her mews house in London, striking balls against a carpet hung on the wall.

She also joined Sudbury golf club in Middlesex, and within two years had reduced her handicap to 4.

She persevered and in 1961 and 1962 won the Ladies' British Open Amateur Championship.

She was New Zealand champion in 1963, and English Champion in 1964.

In 1960, 1962 and 1964 she was a member of the Curtis Cup Team. She also played in the Vagliano Trophy matches in 1959 and 1961, and in the Commonwealth Tournament - now the Astor Trophy - in 1959 and 1963. Between 1955 and 1965 she was Middlesex champion eight times.

She reached the semi-finals of the Canadian championships in 1959, and of the French in 1964.

In 1962, after she had won the British title for the second year in succession, Madame Tussauds commissioned a waxwork of her".

Source : The Telegraph - Copyright © Telegraph Media Group Limited 2011

by Gary Wiren - What is a swing?

"Understanding the swing itself as it applies to golf would be useful in attempting to perform this action.

The PGA Manual Of Golf by Gary WirenDictionary definitions of swing use descriptive phrases like "back and forth with a regular motion", "to hang or suspend", "to cause to turn in alternate directions", "cause to move in a curve", "to move freely", all quite applicable to a golf swing.

Whether the player attempts to get results with a "hitting swing" (a more right-sided, leverage dominated action) or a "swinging hit" (more left-sided with a centrifugal force emphasis) is of no concern to the ball.

The important point to grasp is that in order to get the best results, some type of swinging action must take place...

So whatever style the player prefers, the idea of "making a swing" should be part of any instructional plan."

Reference : Gary Wiren's book 'The PGA Manual Of Golf', The Professional's Way to Play Better Golf, Gary Wiren PGA Master Professional, Ph.D. Macmillan USA. A Simon & Schuster Macmillan Company Copyright © 1991 by The Professional Golfer's Association of America.

Available on Amazon : The PGA Manual of Golf: The Professional's Way to Play Better Golf

by John Jacobs - The best instructor of all

"You know, the ball, that's the best instructor of all. It can't lie. Whatever this does, it gives you an absolute, steadfast reflection as to what your club is doing when it hits it.

Wherever the ball starts its flight, is a direct reflection on your swing path. Let the ball be the greatest help to you."

Reference :'Doctor Golf John Jacobs, The Full Swing' DVD video. Introduced by Sean Connery. Written and presented by John Jacobs. Edited by David Hankin. Produced and Directed by Michael Seligman. Copyright © 2005 Green Umbrella Sport and Leisure.

by Phil Weaver - The Professional Golfers' Association (PGA)

"The PGA is a members' organization for golf professionals.

It has been at the heart of the game since 1901, when professionals of the day, led by the Great Triumvirate of J.H. Taylor, Harry Vardon and James Braid, formed an organization to protect the professionals' interests and promote the game of golf.

Now based at Centenary House at the famous Belfry, scene of four Ryder Cups, the Association is flourishing with more than 7,000 members.

Most are club professionals specializing in the core subjects of coaching and retailing, but increasing numbers are occupying managerial roles within golf clubs and resorts, both at home and overseas.

The PGA is dedicated to training and serving golf professionals whose principal aim is to offer a highly professional service to amateur golfers at a club, driving range or other golf establishment.

The PGA aims to gain the highest possible standards of employment for its members and therefore members must be highly trained, extremely competent and able to take on the complete role of professional or director of golf at any golf establishment.

The PGA also plays a significant role at different levels, from junior coaching through to government level, where it is helping formulate and determine policy for the sport.

This includes active involvement with the England Golf Partnership's Whole Sport Plan, Club Golf Scotland, Golf Development Wales, Junior Golf Ireland and the implementation of the UK Coaching Certificate for golf.

The PGA still retains close ties with the Tour and is a Ryder Cup partner as the trustee of the actual Ryder Cup trophy donated by Sam Ryder.

Its European links are further strengthened through another Ryder Cup partner, the PGA's of Europe.

Reference :

by Corey Pavin - No piece of cake

"Having played golf almost constantly for more than 30 years, I think the fact that I no longer carry a 2-iron in my bag says something about the difficulty of hitting long irons well.

Not that I can't hit a long iron shot well when I have to - I clinched the 1994 Nissan Los Angeles Open thanks to a nice 2-iron approach to the last green. But the occasions when I needed to hit a 2-iron were so rare, and the club itself is so demanding to hit, I removed it from my bag prior to the 1995 season.

Today I use my 4-wood in most cases where a 2-iron is required. Using lofted fairway woods in lieu of long irons is a trend that's catching on at all levels of the game, particularly among handicappers.

The addition of 4- and 5-woods to the set (and I see a lot of 7-woods in place of 4-irons, too) is the most significant equipment development in years.

The middle irons - which I define as the 5- and 6-irons - are no piece of cake, either.

They present problems of a similar nature, though not as pronounced.

I see very few amateurs who are good middle-iron players.

When I refer to long irons in this chapter, the principles I discuss usually apply to the middle irons, too."

Reference : 'Corey Pavin's SHOTMAKING' with Guy Yocom, Golf Digest Pocket Books Published by NYT Special Services, Inc. and Pocket Books, a division of Simon & Schuster Inc. New York. Copyright © 1996 by Corey Pavin Foreword copyright © by Tom Watson Photography by Jim Moriarty Book Design by Laura Hammond Hough.

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