Thinking this to be wrist action, by Percy Boomer

"Too many people try to do something with their hands, thinking this to be wrist action.

But when you analyse it there is no deliberately induced action in the golf swing which corresponds to the mythical 'flick of the wrists'.

Anyway, the word flick is appropriate when we speak of removing ash from a cigarette - but utterly out of place in a movement which sweeps a golf ball 250 yards down the fairway."

Reference : 'On Learning Golf' by Percy BoomerCentered On Wrist Action. Copyright © 1942 by Percy Boomer. First published in the USA by Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.

Percy Boomer On Learning Golf

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The GOLF RESEARCH ARCHIVE 2011 To 2021 - Cure To A Slice In Golf - The Left Hand Must Bear Back

"Of all the faults that one can acquire at golf, there is not one which is so depressing as "slicing". It is caused by the face of the club cutting across the ball, and the faulty action which causes this must be sought." Cecil Leitch

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"The hands and the head of the club should arrive at the ball at the same moment, that is what is known as the art of timing." Joshua Taylor

The Twa Dunns Nane Better (1886) By Tom Morris

"This transcript of a conversation held on New Year's Day, 1886, is not only interesting in itself, but contains much sound golfing philosophy. I give it to the reader precisely in the shape in which it has been given to me:

'A gude new year t'ye, Maister Alexander, an' mony 0' them! An' it's come weel in, the year has; for it's just a braw day for a mautch. Lod, sir, it aye seems to me the years, as they rise, skelp fester the tane after t'ither; they'll sune be makin' auld men o've a'. Hoo auld am I, d'ye ask, sir?

Weel I was born June 16, 1821 ; and ye can calc' late that for yourself'. Aye! as ye say, sir, born and bred in St. Awndrews, an' a gowffer a' ma days. The vera first time, I think, I hae mind 0' mysel' I was toddlin' aboot at the short holes, wi' a putter uneath ma bit oxter.

Old Tom Telling His Story 1886

The Badminton Library Golf Horace G. Hutchinson 1890'I was made 'prentice to Allan as a ba'-macker at eighteen, and wrocht wi' him eliven years. We played, Allan and me thegither, some geyan big mautches-ane in parteecler wi' the twa Dunns, Willie and Jamie, graund players baith, nane better - over fower' greens.

It was a' through a braw fecht atweens - green an green - but we snoddit 'em bonnie ere the end o't. I canna ca' to mind Allan an me was iver sae sair teckled as that time; though a wheen richt gude pair o' them did their best to pit oor twa noses oot o' joint.

But it was na to be dune wi' Allan an' me."

Reference : 'GOLF' BY Horace G. Hutchinson' Chapter XV. The Humours Of Golf By the Rt. Hon. A. J. Balfour, M. P. Page 410, Old Tom Telling His Story. With Contributions By Lord Wellwood, Sir Walter Simpson , Bart., Right Hon. A. J. Balfour, M. P. Andrew Lang, H. S. C. Everard, And Others With Numerous Illustrations By Thomas Hodge And Harry Furniss Second Edition London Longmans, Green, And Co. 1890 All rights reserved. Page 341

Download : 'GOLF' BY Horace G. Hutchinson' Chapter XV. The Humours Of Golf By the Rt. Hon. A. J. Balfour, 1890, including "Dunn was tutored by Tom Morris... the brothers William and James Dunn were in the first rank of players, and on their native green of Musselburgh were well-nigh invincible. They were twins, club and ball makers by trade..."

Download : "Sixty years ago I remember that outstanding instructor Seymour Dunn proclaiming that golf was 85 per cent hands and only 15 per cent body. Nothing in a lifetime's experience in golf has happened to make me think otherwise. How right he has been!" 'THANKS FOR THE GAME The Best of Golf With Henry Cotton Sidgwick & Jackson London Penina 1980

"Your body, your arms - all the members of your frame - ought to be in the same relative positions at the moment of striking as when you addressed yourself to the ball. This is the secret of accuracy - of bringing the club back into the position in which you laid its head behind the ball ; and this can best - we had almost said only be accomplished by keeping under firm control all parts of the body whose free movement is not essential to speed of swing. This is the great secret. These are big words to use, but they are not too big - for they are truth, and truth is great." Horace G. Hutchinson

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Henry Cotton Wins The British Open (1937)


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"At the crucial moment, the moment that counts, that of impact between the club-head and the ball, the left arm stopping at the wrist for an infinitesimal fraction of a second as the ball is struck, accelerating the speed of the club-head. This momentary stoppage is not discernible to the eye, but it exists just the same. It is commonly known as getting the wrists into the stroke. It is a combination of swing and hit, the swing coming almost wholly from the left arm and the hit from the right." Walter J. Travis

Not Centrifugal Force Stance Grip Body Pivot Not golf Fundamentals Dunns Not Centrifugal Forece Stance Grip Body Pivot Not Golf Fundamentals Dunns

"Do not allow the left elbow to swing out and away from the body. It must be kept back so as to allow of the "snap of the wrists" at the critical moment when the ball is struck." Alex Smith

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by Michael Calvin - You must find beauty

"In golf, you don't tend to get what you want.

You must find beauty amidst the beastliness."

Reference : 'MIND GAME' Chapter Two Chasing Rainbows Page 24 By Michael Calvin Thomas Bjorn Copyright © Michael Calvin and Thomas Bjorn 2019

by Seymour Dunn - A handkerchief

"OVER-SWINGING: Over-swinging is a very common fault and interferes with the progress of many players. It makes good timing of the swing very difficult and often causes pressing which ruins everything.

Many players over-swing because they allow the left arm to bend like a jack knife at the elbow. Full cocking of the wrists never caused over-swinging. Only swinging the arms too high, or bending the left arm at the elbow causes it.

Therefore, to remedy over-swinging be sure to keep your left arm well extended throughout the swing, and to remedy the bad habit of raising the arms too high, place a handkerchief under each arm pit and practice driving balls without dropping the handkerchiefs during the swing."

Reference : 'Book IV The Seymour Dunn Standardized Remedies for Swing Errors' OVER-SWINGING Page 128, 1934.

by Bob Torrance - Make work for him

"That the importance of the grip can be scarcely exaggerated should not be interpreted as an assertion that there is only one true grip.

Gene Sarazen, who won championships with a grip which showed four knuckles to a degree which shook the purists and in which his left thumb hung loose off the grip outside the right hand - "the most contorted bunch of bananas I have ever seen", said one pundit - declared on the eve of the 1988 US Masters that the great difference between him and Bobby Jones was that Jones had a beautiful grip from the first while he had to find one he could make work for him."

Reference : 'ROOM AT THE TOP - Golf The Torrance Way - ' Bob Torrance with Norman Mair Foreword by Sean Connery Mainstream Publishing Copyright © Bob Torrance with Norman Mair, 1989 Four The Grip Page 47 First published in Great Britain in 1989 by Mainstream Publishing Company (Edinburgh) Ltd 7 Albany Street, Edinburgh EH1 3UG.

by Henry Cotton - Whereas I teach "hitting with the right hand past the left"

"ERNEST JONES, an Englishman settled in New York, has earned for himself, despite the loss of a leg in the Great War, 1914-1918, the reputation of being one of the best golf teachers in the game. His slogan, "Swing the club-head," is now an international one, and I am sure he will forgive me for suggesting that his war injury brought home to him more forcibly than ever the fact that the club-head must be used to hit the ball, and that this can be best accomplished by not "leaning" on the ball. From one leg, leaning on the ball when striking it is impossible.

Ernest Jones, in his writing around the photograph (of himself showing some friends in the "400 Restaurant" in New York how he demonstrates with his handkerchief and penknife tied to it, the swinging of the club-head) comments on my own wording 'make the club-head do the work'.

Ernest Jones Swing the Club-Head

My wording, which he has seen and which I use frequently in teaching, implies the same thing as Ernest Jones' "Swing the club-head," but I somehow feel that the word "swing" refers only to part of the game and to me means no hit at all, whereas I teach "hitting with the right hand past the left, making the club-head do the work."

What I have not grasped is his interpretation of how to swing the club-head."

Reference : 'This Game Of Golf' Henry Cotton. With A Foreword By Bernard Darwin London Country Life New York: Charles Scribner's Sons First Published in 1948 Fourth Impression 1949. Part III Chapter 21 Swing the Club-Head page 133. Henry Cotton British Open Champion 1934, 1937, and 1948.

Reference : swing's the thing in GOLF By Ernest Jones, Professional, Women's National Golf and Tennis Club, Glenhead, New York Formerly Professional at Chislehurst Golf Club, Kent, England. Copyright, 1940, by Reader Mail, Inc. Printed in U.S.A. Not included pages 2-3 ('Why golf is so popular'),5 ('The Mental Picture'), 26-27 ('Balance In Motion, And Timing), 32 ('Home Service Booklets). Includes 'What Swinging Means' pages 16-18.

Download : 'Ernest Jones' "Swing the club-head" in 'This Game Of Golf' by Henry Cotton.

Reference : 'My Swing Henry Cotton' London Country Life Limited, 1952, page 10.

by Richard Briers - Would that all directing were that easy

"A graphic example of Coward's marvelously delicate appreciation of stage craft came in the run of his 1951 comedy Relative Values, which he directed, with Gladys Cooper as the Countess of Marshwood and Angela Baddeley as the housemaid Moxie (Mrs Moxton).

Some time into the run Gladys commented that Angela was regularly losing a couple of fairly easy laughs in a scene they played together. Coward decided to watch the next night to see if anything was noticeably wrong, but nothing struck him as being obviously out of place; it was just two of his funniest lines passed without a flicker of amusement from the house.

The next night the situation was just the same, but it took an eye as finely focused as Coward's to discover what was amiss.

The only detail that had altered from his rehearsals was Gladys Cooper's sitting position in a wing chair. In the course of the run she had settled back into it - by nothing more than a few inches, but even this tiny amount had altered the scene drastically. In order to look directly into the Countess's eyes, Angela Baddeley had had to turn her head upstage by a fraction of an inch. Coward noted this and suggested Gladys that she should try sitting a little further forward, as she had been at the start. When she did this, without a word being spoken to Angela Baddeley the laughs started to return and were soon bigger than they had been at the outset.

Would that all directing were that easy. Unfortunately the new generation of actors that crossed Coward's path, especially those of the method school, did not find favour with the Master.

Expressing his general exasperation with the tedious earnestness he felt was enveloping the stage, he told one of these disciples who was constantly stopping rehearsals with enquiries about the motivation for his part, "Your motivation is your pay packet on Friday.

Now get on with it."

Reference : 'Coward and Company' Richard Briers Robson Books First published in Great Britain in 1987 by Robson Books Ltd, Bolsover House 5-6 Clipstone Street, London W1P 7EB Copyright © 1987 Richard Briers Ways And Means Page 58.

by Alain Goriely - The crack of a whip

"The crack of a whip is produced by a shock wave created by the supersonic motion of the tip of the whip in the air.

There are two principal methods to crack a whip that can be performed in different planes (laterally along the body, sideways, over the head, and so on).

The first one, the downward snap, consists in moving the handle vertically as to move the entire whip up and then suddenly move the handle down to invert the velocity of the whip and localize the moving part to the tip.

"In other words, the right forearm and hand slap which swings the club on the left wrist is responsible for more than five times as much speed as the pull of the left arm and shoulder put together" By Seymour Dunn 1934 It Is The Right Hand And Forearm Seymour Dunn

While this is the most intuitive way to crack a whip, it is not as efficient as the forward crack, where the handle is moved in the air as to form an initial loop that propagates along the whip to the end. In actual whip cracking, additional energy is provided throughout the entire maneuver by pulling the handle in the opposite direction from the loop."

Reference : 'Shape of a Cracking Whip' Alain Goriely and Tyler McMillen, Department of Mathematics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona Program in Applied Mathematics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (Received 4 March 2002; published 3 June 2002).

by Jim Hardy - The Plane Truth for Golfers

"Editor Richard Simmons talks to Jim Hardy, the author of the ground-breaking book The Plane Truth for Golfers, which essentially classifies all of us as falling into one of two distinct styles or categories: one-plane or two-plane.

Understanding your own preference is the first step to improving your swing and each has its own guiding fundamentals.

The implication is clear: if you are naturally a one-plane swinger of the club (think rotary motion, Hogan, Olazabal) but have been working on two-plane principles you are compromising your natural instincts, effectively fighting a losing battle in your efforts to improve. If you are a natural two-planer (Jack Nicklaus, Colin Montgomerie) and have been influenced by examples of one-plane swings, chances are you are similarly trapped in confusion.

Well who's solid base or foundation should we choose? Jack Nicklaus' or Ben Hogan's? Tom Watson's or Gary Player's? Colin Montgomerie's sound foundation or Jimenez's?

The only sound foundation is a correct, repetitive impact.

In my experience 90% of all golfers will, with the next two or three balls, see a much-improved ball flight. Because they now understand what they were doing. The problem, of course is that most amateur players tend to over-analyse and start trotting out all the traditional cliches – 'Did I keep my head still?', 'Is my left arm too straight?', 'did I cock my wrists?', and so on.

GI: We could almost make the statement, then, that the most important fundamental that every golfer needs to be aware of is his own individuality and style? From there you can build and develop a golf game? JH: 100% correct."

Reference : 'Plane Talking' Feature The Big Interview Editor Richard Simmons Jan/Feb 2012 106

by Milan Coh - Optimally accurate notion of movement

"Performing a certain movement is only possible if a suitable motor programme for it exists. The motor process starts with a definition of the desired result and consists of three interconnected phases: the phase of basic movement coordination, the phase of accurate movement coordination and the phase of movement coordination stabilisation under changeable and difficult circumstances.

A precondition for efficient motor learning is an optimally accurate notion of movement which is based on the visual followed by the kinesthetic processing of information.

Motor learning is a complex and continuous process consisting of several phases. The essence of efficient motor learning in sport is a correct notion of movement. In the case of beginners, the notion of movement is vague, incomplete, sometimes even wrong and not in harmony with the real dynamic and temporal parameters of movement technique. The use of motor learning methods depends on the athlete's biological and calendar age, foreknowledge, motor experience, and the information he has on movement.

The most common causes of irrational movement are incorrect notions, a lack of motor abilities and an unfavourable morphological constitution of the athlete."

Reference : 'MOTOR LEARNING IN SPORT' UDC 796.012: 591.513 Milan Čoh, Dragana Jovanović-Golubović, Milovan Bratić Faculty of Sport, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia Faculty of Physical Education, University of Niš, Niš, Serbia and Montenegro 2005 Golf page 49.

by Tony Lema - Your advice would be simple

"If you examine the swings that many of the successful players use you might well decide that not one of them is any good.

Palmer lunges at the ball and punches it. Nicklaus has the unorthodox habit of letting his right elbow fly far out from his body as he takes the club back. Jack Cupit has such a loop at the top of his backswing that it makes him look as if he were waving a flag. I myself loop noticeably at the top. Billy Maxwell leaps at the ball like a panhandler diving for a ten-spot.

Julius Boros is all hands and wrists like a man dusting the furniture. Jerry Barber has his wrists completely cocked practically before he has even started his swing. Doug Sanders braces himself with a wide stance that looks like a sailor leaning into a northeast gale and take the club back barely enough to get it off the ground.

If you lined these eight players up on the practice tee without knowing who in the world they were and asked them to hit a few shots your advice would be simple: "Go back home and sell insurance. You haven't got it."

Yet here they are the top players in the game."

Reference : 'Tony Lema's Inside Story of the Professional Golf Tour' By Tony Lema with Gwilym S. Brown London W. Foulsham & Co. Ltd. London - Toronto - Cape Town - Sydney Copyright © 1964 By Anthony David Lema And Gwilym Slater Brown Made and Printed in Great Britain By John Gardner (Printers) Ltd., Hawthorne Road, Litherland, Liverpool, 20. 6. Whatever happened to ...? Page 64

by Joshua Won - Hands move past the chest, freely

"The Release of Potential Energy – The Kinetic Chain.

The shoulders and back muscles are isometrically contracting to create resistance to allow the hands to move past the chest, freely, accelerating the club through the ball."

Reference : 'The Biomechanics of the Golf Swing', The Down Swing, The Release of Potential Energy – The Kinetic Chain' Joshua Won Biology 438 April 19th, 2011

by Louise Suggs - My game became mostly about hands

And That's That The Life Story of One of Golf's Greatest Champions Louise Suggs"I didn't have any formal swing instruction.

Most of what I learned came from watching and emulating the golf swings of players I admired - like Bobby Jones.

I inherited a great sense of feel from Dad and he really encouraged me to tap into it. He told me that golf was like baseball - nobody could tell a pitcher how to produce a fast curve or a slow one; they simply had to learn by doing it. We spent numerous hours together working by trial and error with tips he'd picked up in books, magazines, or just by talking to folks.

In the end, it came down to what felt right to me. Later on, I got some help from a family friend, Bob Morgan - a good golfer from Austell who lived about half a mile up the road from the golf course. He used to walk by the range every now and again and give me tips. Eventually, he went to Dad and said, "Do you mind if I work with her?" Dad replied, "Sure, I've taught her everything I know."

Bob gave me a great deal of insight into the game. He was a big advocate of me using my hands and he showed me how to hit hooks and slices, and how to get out of tight lies.

My game became mostly about hands."

Reference : 'And That's That!' The Life Story of One of Golf's Greatest Champions Louise Suggs With Elaine Scott Foreword by Barbara Bush AuthorHouse™ LLC 1663 Liberty Drive Bloomington, IN 47403 © 2014 Louise Suggs. All rights reserved The Swing - Hands, Feel, and Imagination 148.

by Cecil Leitch - The word flat

"In the previous chapter the outline described by the club-head during a swing has been likened to a circle. As a matter of fact, an ellipse would be a more accurate description, but I dare not say such a thing to a novice, as an attempt to make her club-head describe an ellipse might prove disastrous.

However, as I am now addressing remarks to those who have passed the earliest stage, I use this example in order to bring home the importance of sweeping the ball away.

It is not for me to state whether the "flat" swing or the "upright" swing is the better, but I can say that my observations, when watching others, have convinced me that there are many players with upright swings who would lengthen their respective games if they could only flatten their swings a trifle.

Simplified Golf By Cecil Leitch 1924Does it not stand to reason that the club-head which is describing a half-circle as it comes to the ball, meets it and follows after it, cannot apply as much power as that which describes a flatter sweep?

Now by "flat" I do not mean the swing which brings the club-head round near the right leg.

The word "flat" is used to distinguish the action of taking the club-head along the ground, as far as the arms will permit, from the more common action which causes the club-head to rise from the ground almost immediately."

Reference : 'Golf Simplified' By Cecil Leitch. Chapter II How To Acquire Length And Direction, page 37. Winner Ladies' Open Championship, 1914, 1920, 1921; English Ladies' Close Championship, 1914, 1919; Ladies' Championship of France, 1912, 1914, 1920 and 1921; Canadian Ladies' Championship, 1921. Thornton Butterworth LTD. 15 Bedford Street, London, W.C.2. First Published 1924.

Download : Chapter II. How To Acquire Length And Direction 'Golf Simplified' By Cecil Leitch, 1924.

by B. Lowe - A co-planar clubhead displacement

"The finding of primarily co-planar clubhead displacements in a group of low handicap golfers support the view that centrifugal forces, generated by the pendulum action, were used by these players to ensure an effective ball-strike.

In particular, support was found for the idea that better players primarily utilise centrifugal forces, rather than supination of the left wrist, to square the clubface, near impact.

Successful wielding of the articulated golf club was consistent with the claim of Cochran and Stobbs, 1968 p.112 that 'One of the most interesting and important discoveries of the G.S.G.B. research programme is that, at impact, the clubhead behaves as though it were freely moving and not connected at all to the player.'

Contrary to Sanders and Owens (1992), the golf clubhead, at least for most of this group, was found to rotate about a central pivot.

This claim is made as the downswing and follow-through swing planes of the better players were co-planar. This finding does not preclude upper body movement during the swing; rather it suggests an internally consistent feature of an orthodox swing may be a co-planar clubhead displacement."

Reference : 'Science and Golf II Proceedings of the 1994 World Scientific Congress of Golf' Edited by A. J. Cochran and Mr R. Farrally. Spon Press Taylor & Group. Part One The Golfer 9 Centrifugal force and the planar swing p.64 Discussion B. Lowe FEI Expert Systems Research, Melbourne, Australia and I.H. Fairweather Department of Physical Education and Recreation, Victoria University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia.

by Ernest Jones - Always exerting an outward pull

"Always bear in mind that the wrists act as hinges which join the hands and arms. Thus, the natural outward pull of the clubhead will cause them to bend as the speed of the clubhead builds up to its maximum at impact.

This is the truest of the real swinging action, and it is independent of any conscious effort to put "wrist snap" into the stroke.

The wrists are responsive to motion. They never initiate the swinging action.

When the clubhead is changing direction, the hand action brings about a position of the wrists, in relation to the forearms, quite different from their position in addressing the ball. When the clubhead returns to the position of impact, the same as that in the address, the hands must also return to their original position. Otherwise, the face of the club could not be brought squarely against the ball.

This return to original position is brought about by the swinging action, without any conscious effort to put so-called wrist snap into the stroke.

In short, a swing is a swing, whether it is long or short. It always has its own peculiar distinguishing characteristics. These are the power applied through the point of contact with the club at the center, with the object swung always exerting an outward pull.

Any one who has learned to identify the swing through the sense of feel can recognize this.


No matter how the golfer looks, the vital thing in the stroke is that important business of SWINGING THE CLUBHEAD. Speed, in short, is everything. And to attain that speed your mind must carry a clear picture of setting the clubhead in motion with your hands and fingers, and KEEPING IT IN A SWINGING ACTION AT ALL TIMES.

If you swing easily, gracefully and in a manner free from appearance of undue effort, you are using good form. Good form is appealing to the eye. Thus, it will improve any style.

If you carry your swinging action THROUGH the ball, continue it after impact, you will also get greater speed at the MOMENT of impact. This ultimate in golf stroking will be achieved more easily than if you try to "slug" the ball. Do not do anything to interfere with the swinging action of the clubhead. Just swing.

It is enough to learn to swing simply by sensing the action through feeling what is being done with the clubhead. Do not complicate matters by trying to imitate the appearance of other golfers at the same time. The stroke with the putter differs in none of its essentials from the stroke with any other club. You just swing the clubhead."

Reference : 'Swing The Clubhead And Cut Your Golf Score' by Ernest Jones America's Foremost Golf Teacher. As Told To David Eisenberg. Illustrated with photographs and drawings. How Thousands Have Learned The Sure Way To Better Golf, Dodd, Mead and Company. New York. Copyright © 1952 By Ernest Jones and David Eisenberg. Designed by Stefan Salter. 9. Woods, Irons and the Putter 74.

Download : 'Frankel Golf Academy Presents Golf's One Motion' Arnie Frankel P.G.A. Veteran Ron Frankel Director Of Academy Golf's One Motion By Arnold Frankel Editing Assistance : Katherine Woodford Copyright © 1995 Arnold Frankel, including "When our mentor, Ernest Jones,..., this specific motion creates centrifugal force for maximum distance, 'There Is No Model'."

by Walter Hagen - Then my pivot became automatic

"I had never been much concerned with form. I had concentrated on getting the ball where I wanted it. Imitating Vardon's stance and swing at Brookline had made me aware of the value of correct posture and body rhythm such as he had developed.

Also I had something of a sway and a very noticeable movement of my hips and knees... first forward, then backward. One writer at the time said I started my drive with a sway and ended with a lunge. And I guess he was about right.

In modifying movement in my swing I tried first to eliminate the exaggerated swaying as much as possible.

I found that if I began the backswing by taking the club away from the ball my hip action and pivot would take care of themselves. In doing this I was getting a semi-sway but at all times keeping my left eye focused on the ball, thus keeping my head still.

Then my pivot became automatic."

Reference : 'The Walter Hagen Story' By Walter Hagen With Margaret Seaton Heck Heinemann Melbourne London Toronto First published 1957 Printed in Great Britain at The Windmill Press Kingswood, Surrey. Part One: The Tee 5 champion, 1914 Page 34.

by Eric T. Skov - An ability to bypass some biomechanical limitations

"Previous authors have stressed that a greater length of sling imparts a greater velocity to the projectile (Dohrenwend 2002; Finney 2005, 2006; Korfmann 1973; Skov 2011).

This implies that the primary mechanical advantage has been thought of in terms of extending the arm. If a throwing motion is thought of in terms of rotary motion, the sling and arm together form the radius of a circle.

For any given rotary velocity a larger radius results in a greater tangential velocity along the outer edge of the circle. A projectile released at a higher velocity will travel farther, reach the target more quickly and strike with more energy than a lower velocity projectile (The Physics Classroom 2013).

Practice with the sling has shown that explaining the sling's advantage in terms of simple leverage is inadequate.

Using most techniques, the arm does not inscribe as large a throwing motion as when objects are thrown by hand.

Motions which are most effective in casting projectiles with the sling do not seek to maximise the total of sling and arm length but to controllably accelerate and release the projectile. While extending the throwing lever does happen to some degree in slinging, the primary advantage seems to be an ability to bypass some biomechanical limitations of the human arm and body.

Small impulses sent from the wrist and forearm can easily rotate a loaded sling at relatively high speed."

Reference : 'Experimentation in Sling Weaponry: Effectiveness of and Archeological Implications for a World-Wide Primitive Technology' by Eric T. Skov A THESIS Presented to the Faculty of The Graduate College at the University of Nebraska In Partial Fulfillment of Requirements For the Degree of Master of Arts Major: Anthropology Under the Supervision of Professor LuAnn Wandsnider Lincoln, Nebraska May, 2013. How a Sling Works. Page 7-8. Follow this and additional works at:

by Dai Rees - Concentrate instead, on the hands

"Any student of the golf swing as I have stressed in my Golf Monthly articles knows that each part of the body contributes to it in some way, actively or passively.

Thirty Years of Championship Golf Dai Rees An AutobiographyThe shoulders must come into the swing, of course, but what one must not try to do is to hit from, or with, the shoulders. This is a very common fault, particularly with older golfers who are less supple than they used to be.

Moreover, when a golfer tries to gain extra length with his shoulders he creates a chain reaction which prevents the hands from making their full contribution to the stroke. So I told my pupils then, and still do, to forget the shoulders and to concentrate instead, as far as the upper part of the body is concerned, on the hands.

The hands must be given the opportunity to take charge.

At Hinhead I told my pupils to practise hitting shots with their feet close together. From such a narrow stance it is impossible to lunge at the ball with the shoulders without going completely off balance, and possibly falling over."

Reference : 'Thirty Years of Championship Golf' DAI REES An Autobiography (with John Ballantine) Stanley Paul London Stanley Paul & Co Ltd 178-202 Great Portland Street, London W1 First published 1968 © Dai Rees 1968 3 Page 28. Dai Rees, C.B.E., winner of the P.G.A Championship (four times), the Dunlop Masters (twice), the Belgium Open Championship, the Irish Championship, the New South Wales Open Championship, and every British tournament of note.

by John Jacobs - The best instructor of all

"Lastly, let me remind you of the ballistics of impact.

You know, the ball, that's the best instructor of all. It can't lie. Whatever this does, it gives you an absolute, steadfast reflection as to what your club is doing when it hits it.

Wherever the ball starts its flight, is a direct reflection on your swing path. Let the ball be the greatest help to you."

Reference :'Doctor Golf John Jacobs, The Full Swing' DVD video. Introduced by Sean Connery. Written and presented by John Jacobs. Edited by David Hankin. Produced and Directed by Michael Seligman. Copyright © 2005 Green Umbrella Sport and Leisure.

by Walter J. Travis - About the value of putting

"Now I am asked to say something about the principles of golf as I view them, and in particular about the value of putting.

Now, in putting, everything depends upon the proper action of the wrists. The body does not enter into the question at all, for whilst a putt is being accomplished it should be absolutely motionless, and when it is not so there is a much greater likelihood than usual of the putt being missed. I believe that putting should be done always with one hand - with one hand actively at work, that is.

The left hand should be used only for the purpose of swinging the clubhead backwards preparatory to taking the stroke. When it has done that its work is done, and the right hand should then be the sole master of the situation, the left being merely kept in attachment to it for steadying purposes. When only one hand is thus employed the gain in accuracy is very great. Two hands at work on a short putt ora long one tend to distraction.

When the stroke is being made the grip of the right hand should be firm, but not tight, and after the impact the club-head should be allowed to pass clean through with a easy following stroke. The follow-through should, indeed, be as long as it is possible to make it comfortably, and, with this object in view, at the moment of touching the ball the grip of the fingers of the left hand should be considerably relaxed, so that the right hand may go on doing its work without interruption. Never hit or jerk the ball, as so many players do. There is nothing that pays so well as the easy follow-through stroke.

And remember, finally, that very best of maxims - "Never up, never in.""

Reference : 'Great Golfers In The Making By Thirty-Four Famous Players Edited By Henry Leach' Being Autobiographical Accounts Of The Early Progress Of The Most Celebrated Players, With Reflections On The Morals Of Their Experience, By John L. Low, Harold H. Hilton, Horace G. Hutchinson, J. E. Laidlay, Walter J. Travis, James Robb, Edward Blackwell, Harry Vardon, James Braid, J. H. Taylor, Alexander Herd, Willie Park, Tom Morris, Jack White, Etc. Etc. Edited, With An Introduction, By Henry Leach With Twenty-Four Illustrations Second Edition Methuen & Co. 36 Essex Street W.C. London First Published January 1907 Second Edition 1907. X. Walter J. Travis Leading To A Famous Victory Page 95.

by aSports Technology Institute - A top level golf swing

"Assessing a coach's technical knowledge of a sporting technique can reveal measureable biomechanical parameters associated with successful performance.

This assessment can provide new insights into technique, enhance a coach's technical knowledge or assist in optimising performance. Despite numerous golf instructional books, no scientific study has assessed a golf coach's technical knowledge of the golf swing.

Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the key technical parameters that professional golf coaches associate with a top level golf swing; with the intention of using the results to guide future golf biomechanics research and coaching technologies.

Initially, sixteen professional golf coaches were individually observed coaching a highly skilled golfer after which they participated in a semi-structured interview regarding their technical analysis of the golf swing.

QSR-NVivo analysis software was used to inductively analyse the data using the grounded theory approach. Line-by-line coding was followed by comparison of 'meaning units' to form a coding hierarchy with several key technical parameters identified.

A successful golf swing was defined through three elements, with "body motion" affecting "club motion" and resulting "ball flight".

Several terms described these parameters including "consistent", "powerful", "accurate", "simple" and "controlled" with the most prevalent being "repeatable". "Body motion" was influenced by five intrinsically linked key technical parameters:

  • "posture",
  • "body rotation",
  • "sequential movement",
  • "hand and arm action", and,
  • "club parameters" which were further sub categorised.

To conclude, the key technical parameters have been identified which will be used to support future biomechanical research in this area and to be used to direct new technologies to aid golf coaching."

Reference : 9th Conference of the International Sports Engineering Association (ISEA), Abstract 'Professional golf coaches' perceptions of the key technical parameters in the golf swing', Aimée Smith, Jonathan Robertsa, Eric Wallaceb, Stephanie Forrestera, aSports Technology Institute, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK, University of Ulster, Ulster, UK, 02 March 2012.

by Medicus Golf Institute - Is “Model Golf” by Ralph Mann “The” Model?

"At Medicus Golf Institute, we are frequently asked about the viability of the new age golf swings that are being hyped – as well as those which may be from the past.

One such e-mail was recently sent to us regarding Model Golf - by Ralph Mann. The following is our synopsis of Model Golf by Chuck Evans, Executive Director of Instruction for Medicus Golf.

Indeed, Model Golf was based on top pros – but their models were developed 15-20 years ago. Model Golf also has the "model" moving the club off plane and tilting backwards. When I asked Ralph Mann about this and the differences between Hitters and Swingers, he replied, "I don't believe in Hitting versus Swinging."

When I asked about the model being off plane, he replied, "That’s what our research showed the best do." I replied, “Would it not be better, for teaching purposes, to show them a model that IS on plane?

We spent two days together at the PGA Tour Academy where they installed the system. We tested it for two months and threw it out.  To give you an example, one of the models they used was Vance Heafner. He hasn't played the tour since the late 80's.

Although brilliant in concept, Model Golf should never be used as a “model” for a number of reasons:

  1. The model is based on an accumulation of other golfers and not the golfer that is learning.
  2. The model has numerous swing flaws, meaning a player that complies with the model will inherit these flaws.
  3. The model does not take into account what the student physically can and cannot do.

According to Model Golf, the pro model slides roughly two inches very early in the backswing. 

During the transition move, the pro will then use his hips to “bump” his weight forward (for those same two inches) and then stop sliding. The downswing then turns into a rotary motion. 

Model Golf states that the swing will be a weak, arm-dominated swing if there is no lateral move off of the ball. By sliding away from and then back towards the ball during the transition, the golfer loads (or “stretches”) the muscles that propel the rotary motion to the ball.

Hip Slide is a variation and several players certainly do use. However, for most players – and this applies to tour players as well – Hip Slide can be a dangerous thing.

First, timing issues arise since you cannot move in a straight line and a circle at the same time. Personally, I have never seen a player that moves off the ball (to their right) in the backstroke get back to where they started. This now affects the ball location relative to the Low Point. If the Low Point has moved back, the ball location has effectively moved forward. When the ball location moves forward like this, the player ends up hitting fat shots and tries to time impact via a flipping of the hands.

Secondly, most players that move off the ball (mainly middle to high handicappers) never get the correct rotational motion in the downstroke. They have plenty of Hip Slide – but no Hip Turn!

Additionally, the golfer need not slide laterally to create the aforementioned “stretch” in Model Golf. 

Rather, we at Medicus Golf Institute see this “stretch” as being created by simply leaving the hands at the top while moving the Right Shoulder down plane from the top. This move stretches the left arm against the chest and creates what we call "Pivot Lag."

One important key to remember is that even the world's best players make compensations in their golf strokes. Tour players are just better at compensating than the average player and are also experts at hand manipulation. If someone wants to create the perfect Golfing Machine, they need not look further than Iron Byron. Mechanical devices don't need to make last minute adjustments during the stroke. They do, however, require that the ball be placed precisely in the same place each time. If it is not, the ball goes everywhere – just like a human.

Model Golf by Dr Ralph Mann Our preference at Medicus Golf Institute is for golfers to move as few things as possible in the smallest amount of space possible – something that will eliminate a lot of “faults.”

Though we do not teach with straitjackets on our students, we prefer a set-up with 60% of weight on the target side. You then leave it there during the backstroke and downstroke. After pre-setting this weight, you then either simply rotate (Swinging) or take the right shoulder and right arm down plane to the inside aft quadrant of the ball (Hitting). By proceeding in this way, a golfer has successfully eliminated one more moving part.

If one does not set-up as prescribed above, there is a minimal “hip bump” to start the downstroke. But even then, this motion is no more than two inches. For a game-changing experience where you’ll learn more about how to build your golf swing your way, sign up today for a Medicus Institute Golf School near you."

Reference : web site ArticleID=198

by George Arnold - Creating a methodology for teaching the golf swing

"The key is in recognizing the different aspects of increasing the power of the swing:

A. Gripping the club should be with the fingers not the hands. Hold the club in front of you with the clubhead skyward. Form the grip with your fingers - looking into a mirror you will notice that the first three knuckles are in-line with the last three knuckles of the other hand? By having them in alignment, it allows for the hands to respond to the swinging golf club throughout the swing and reduces any tension. Bring the clubhead down to the ground and your hands are set.

B. Allow the arms to hang freely from the shoulders and avoid creating any tension in this area. Tension will restrict the amount of turning in the upper body and of your body trunk, thus reducing clubhead speed, which limits the distance the ball will travel.

C. The upper body should rotate around an axis at the nape of the neck or top of the spine. To keep this axis centered, the lower spine moves laterally with an upward tilting of the hips - the right hip tilts upward on the backswing, and the left hip tilts upward on the downswing. Any lateral movement of the upper spine will result in inconsistent clubface-to-ball contact and can actually reduce the length of the swing.

These three simple steps should allow you to swing with greater comfort and generate better clubhead speed. The ball will be propelled further and straighter with seemingly less effort. The more relaxed you feel when hitting the ball the more confidence you will gain."

Reference : 'Creating A Methodology For Teaching The Golf Swing' by George Arnold, CPGA Professional, Thesis presented to the Canadian Professional Golfer's Association in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Master Professional, page 9.

by Caroline Gammell and Prof Sharp - The wrists are not as important

"The key is knowing at exactly what stage of the swing you should exert the maximum force, according to research. Use too much strength too early or too late and the aspiring golfer will see their handicap stubbornly linger in double figures.

Tiger Woods, who has won 87 tournaments in his 12-year career, is viewed by many commentators as the golfer with the most perfect swing.

Using a complex mathematical equation, Professor Robin Sharp from the Department of Mechanical, Medical and Aerospace Engineering at the University of Surrey, has calculated which parts of the upper body should be used at what stage.

Breaking with conventional thinking, his study suggests that the wrists are not as important as the way a golfer uses their arms. His research also concludes that height is not as advantageous as previously thought, with short people able to hit a ball almost as far as their taller competitors if they use the right technique.

Prof Sharp studied three professional golfers from the 1968 Ryder Cup - Bernard Hunt, Geoffrey Hunt and Guy Wolstenholme - whose swing action was photographed on a high speed camera. He focused on three points of rotation on the body - the shoulders relative to the spine, the arms relative to the shoulders and the wrists relative to the arms.

Previous studies have either suggested that maximum power should be used from the start of the backswing, or that a golfer builds up the power throughout the swing, using full force by the time they strike the ball.

This latest study, however, published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society, suggests increasing the power of rotation - known as the torque - to a maximum shortly after starting the swing and maintaining this force until hitting the ball.

Prof Sharp said: "Generating too much arm speed too soon causes an early release, with the club-head reaching its maximum speed before it arrives at the ball. "The optimal strategy consists of hitting first with the shoulders while holding back with arms and wrists and after some delay, hitting through with the arms. "At release, the timing of which depends on the combination of shoulder and arm actions employed, the wrists should hit through. "In the expert swings studied, control of the arms and not the wrists appears to be the priority. "Knowing exactly how long that "delay" should last is the crucial factor. Prof Sharp said under the model, being tall was not a huge advantage. "Dimensional reasoning shows that dramatic differences in performance between large and small players should not be expected on the basis of size alone," he said. "A 21 per cent bigger player can be expected to have just a 10 per cent advantage in clubhead speed.""

Source : 'Scientists claim to have found the secret to the perfect golf swing' By Caroline Gammell 05 Nov 2008 © Copyright of Telegraph Media Group Limited 2014

by Harold Begbie - J. H. Taylor Unless the wrist at the last moment

""Well, we have reached this point: the left ankle, knee, hip, and wrist have turned to the right, and the club has gone back and round in consequence.

Let me stop it half-way to the top, and take a look at the left hand. In addressing the ball, the knuckle of the first finger was visible to our eyes ; but if we look at our left hand half-way back on the swing we shall see that all the knuckles have become visible.

Now, wait a minute. Bring that left hand back very slowly to the address and you will find that without a flick of the wrist at the last second of time your first knuckle will not assume its original prominence. The left hand moving back towards the ball would slice across it weakly and fumblingly, without any decisive snap, unless the wrist at the very last moment flicked that first knuckle into its rightful salience."

By means of the broken poker he illustrated this point.

Grasped in his left hand and pointing downwards at an imaginary ball, the first knuckle was visibly and strongly on top ; slowly he moved the poker back and round, and up came all the other knuckles ; then he moved it forward again, without a flick of the wrist, and all those knuckles remained in the same place, with the poker stubbornly refusing to come round to its original position. He struck a swift blow in this fashion, and one saw at once its feebleness and awkwardness. Then he showed, by slow movement, how a turn of the wrist at the last moment brought the knuckle back to its proper place ; and when he came to strike a swift blow in this fashion that broken poker set up such a whistle, and it was the merest stump of a poker, that I was astonished.

The sound seemed to please him, and there he stood in the centre of that cold gaunt room making the poker whistle like an errand-boy on his rounds, with bows contracted, with eyes fierce, snorting out at every whistle, "There!" and occasionally "Thus!" I tried it, and produced only a rustle ; but the point was clear in my mind"

Reference : 'J. H. Taylor Or The Inside Of A Week' By Harold Begbie Regia, crede mibi, res est succurrere lapsis. (Believe me it is a kingly act to help the afflicted.) VI. The Whistling Poker Page 49. Mills & Boon Limited 49 Rupert Street London W.1 Published 1925 Printed and Made in Great Britain by The London And Norwich Press, Limited, St. Giles Works, Norwich.

by Walter J. Travis - Putting, the right hand should be the sole master

"Putting, I consider, should always be done with one hand—with one hand actively at work I mean.

The left hand should be restricted to swinging the clubhead backwards preparatory to making the stroke. Its work is then really finished, and thenceforth the right hand should be the sole master of the situation, the left being merely kept in company with it for steadying purposes.

The gain in accuracy is very great when only one hand is employed in this manner.

When two hands are at work on either a short putt or a long one there is a tendency towards distraction. At the time the stroke is being made the grip of the right hand should be firm, but not tight; and after impact the head of the club should be allowed to pass clean through with an easy following stroke.

I think that the follow-through should be as long as it is possible to make it without straining it, and, with this object in view, I suggest that, at the moment of striking the ball, the grip of the fingers of the left hand should be considerably relaxed in order that the right hand may go on doing its work without the slightest interference from the other.

Many players hit or jerk the ball, and this is bad. There is nothing that pays so well on the green as the easy follow-through stroke. And the best of putting maxims is the oldest of them all, namely: 'Never up, never in.'"

Reference : THE TRAINING OF TRAVIS* Some Landmarks In The Story Of Twenty-One Years Of Golf The Manner, The Method, And Some Counsel By Henry Leach (Author of "The Happy Golfer," "The Spirit Of The Links," Etc.) * Copyright, 1917, in Great Britain and U. S. A. by Henry Leach.) The American Golfer May 1917 Volume 18 Number 1 Page 558.

by Jim Hopkins - The one that got away

"A RUSHED lunch break may have cost Taylor a record sixth Open victory. He had turned a two-stroke halfway deficit into a two-shot lead after round three of his 1914 shoot-out with Harry Vardon at Prestwick.

Taylor's Gold Life and times of a golfing superstar A Royal North Devon Golf Club Publication 2010"I had my digs at Troon and as a consequence of my lack of foresight was obliged to get my lunch as best I could close at hand, he wrote. On this critical occasion I found this makeshift policy a serious detriment and its hurried improvisation deprived me of the opportunity of rest and quiet reflection that was so necessary to the final effort. I do not put this forward as an excuse - it was my own fault - but I do own up being a bit flustered when we got on to the tee to begin the last round."

Unsettled by the rush, Taylor missed a 2ft birdie putt on the first green that would have put him four strokes ahead - Vardon had taken a bogey five - and he then imploded on the fourth with a disastrous seven.

Taylor wrote: " The playing of the Pow Burn hole will remain with me for ever as a horrible proved to be the greatest tragedy of my golfing life.

"Just before the Championship the great clever James Braid had been called to tighten up the course, one result being that a couple of bunkers had been cunningly placed about where a reasonably good and straight drive would finish, leaving a horribly narrow passage between them and the edge of the burn.

"Vardon steered his drive splendidly between the hazards, which I tried to copy, but hitting the ball off the heel it meandered into a shallow bunker situated at the bend in the stream. When I reached the spot I found the ball lying clearly in the sand, presenting no great difficulty. I stepped into the bunker with no misgivings, but struck it heavily and spooned it out a few yards and into the burn. This meant a lift and a drop and the sorry tale must be told that I took three putts and an ugly seven went on the card."

Vardon, who had picked up a shot at the third hole, secured his four and was now one stroke ahead.

"What was even more lamentable," Taylor wrote, "was that my nerves had given way. A wave of nervous anxiety suddenly flooded my system, and the mischief was accomplished before I could conquer this feeling... suddenly I seemed to realise the importance of the occasion and all it meant to me, and for two or three holes I was absolutely helpless. After that I pulled myself together and was cool as ice, but I had then lost my chance."

Vardon had the momentum he needed to close out the tournament - and his place in history - by three strokes. Taylor lamented: "Had I succeeded with that first putt I think it would have made a vast difference to the final result."

Reference : 'A Royal North Devon Golf Club Publication : Taylor's Gold Life and times of a golfing superstar' Words: Jim Hopkins / Photography: Patrick Noonan. A Message From Peter Alliss. This book is dedicated to the memory of John Henry Taylor. First published 2010 Edward Gaskell Publishers © Royal North Devon Golf Club, 'The one that got away', page 127.

Download : 'How To Overcome Difficulties From Tee To Green, Bunkered By J. H. Taylor, Golf Faults Illustrated By G. W. Beldam J. H. Taylor New Enlarged Edition' Fourth Impression London: George Newnes, Limited Southampton Street, Strand, W.C., page 167, 1911.

by Paul Runyan - Willie Macfarlane best mastered the plane

"Historically speaking, it is not Jones or Sarazen, Snead or Hogan, Littler or Palmer who stand out in my mind as having best mastered the swing plane.

It is Willie (William) Macfarlane, a tall wisp of a man, who looked more like a professor than an athlete. Willie grooved his swing so well that his idea of a good rousing workout was to stand on the first tee before starting his round and just make four or five passes in the air with his driver to loosen himself up. The last pass might even be a bit vigorous. Then, he would hit the ball down the fairway straight as a string and go on like that throughout the entire round.

Macfarlane was also sound in all the important fundamentals of grip and stance, of course. But his pipeline, monotonous straightness was mostly a product of his unvarying, effortlessly repeated swing plane."

"I've played with other golfers deservedly famous for their straightness - men like Harry Cooper or Mac Smith, to name just two - without really being overawed. If anything, I felt I was even straighter myself. But Willie Macfarlane always made me feel like a wild man. By comparison, I seemed to be zigging and zagging all over the course.

And the reason for his amazing consistency was that he had grooved this rotating wheel, this swing plane, as well as any man I ever saw. He could always reproduce it and it never wobbled on him or left its track."

Reference :'Paul Runyan's Book For Senior Golfers', The Swing Plane, Chapter 5. Dodd, Mead & Company, Copyright © 1962 by Paul Runyan.

Reference : Pictures of Willie Macfarlane's Swing, the 1925 Open Champion, from the American Golfer, June, 1933, courtesy LA84 Foundation. The first seven pictures cover the action of the backswing, while the eighth shows the initial move in starting it down.

by Dr. Jim Suttie PGA Professional - The path of the clubhead is inside-outside

"Misconception 17: The path of the clubhead on a correct golf swing is inside-outside.

Reasons: Most of us have been taught to swing inside-outside.

Unfortunately, this is not correct. If the golfer swings excessively inside-outside, he will push-fade and hook most of his golf shots.

It might feel we are swinging inside-outside, but what really should happen is this: The golf club approaches the ball from inside the target line through impact, and then moves off to the left of the target line after impact.

This occurs because the hands and arms follow the body rotation both on the backswing and downswing.

It is this "inward-to straight-to inward" club movement that creates a natural release of the clubhead through impact and divots that point slightly left of the target line."

Reference : 'Appendix 3' Golf Swing Misconceptions by Dr. Jim Suttie, PGA Professional Cog Hill Golf Course Lemont, Illinois, The PGA Manual of Golf by Gary Wiren PGA Master Professional, Ph.D. MacMillan USA Copyright © 1991 by The Professional Golfer's Association of America.

by Ben Hogan - No such thing as an absolute and standard plane

"There is no such thing as an absolute and standard plane for all golfers. The correct angle for each person's plane depends on how he is built.

A fellow whose legs are proportionately shorter than his arms, for example, necessarily creates a shallow angle for his plane. At the other extreme, a man whose legs are proportionally longer than his arms sets up a very steep angle for himself. Neither plane, let me repeat, is incorrect.

Technically, it is wrong to term the man who properly swings on a shallow plane a "flat swinger," or the man who properly swings on a steep plane an "upright swinger," simply because their planes happen to be flatter or more upright than the plane of the man of more average proportions. However, if any golfer permits his arms and his club to drop well below his established plane, then, whether he normally possesses a shallow or steep or an average plane, he would be swinging too flat.

Ben Hogan The Plane

"The backswing plane runs from the ball through the shoulders."

Similarly, if he hoists his club above the line of his plane, he would be swinging too upright. Perhaps the best way to visualize what the plane is and how it influences the swing is to imagine that, as the player stands before the ball at address, his head sticks out through a hole in an immense pane of glass that rests on his shoulders as it inclines upward from the ball.


Actually, his left arm should brush against the glass. As for his shoulders, as they turn on the backswing, the top of the shoulders will continuously be brushing against the glass. As golf faults go, it it not too injurious if your club and arms travel on a plane a little flatter than the ideal one.


Reference : 'Five Lessons, The Modern Fundamentals of Golf', Copyright © 1957 Ben Hogan. Lesson 3, The First Part of the Swing, page 77.

by Percy Boomer - The essentials of the swing

"So to clear the ground I will list what I consider to be the essentials of the swing:

  1. To turn the body round to the right and then back and round to the left, without moving either way. In other words this turning movement must be from a fixed pivot,
  2. To keep the arms at full stretch throughout the swing - through the back swing, the down swing, and the follow through,
  3. To allow the wrists to break fully back at the top of the swing,
  4. To delay the actual hitting of the ball until as late in the swing as possible,
  5. Not to tighten any muscle concerned in the reactive part of the swing (movement above the waist),
  6. To feel and control the swing as a whole and not to concentrate on any part of it.

Percy Boomer The Essentials of the SwingIn a sense this last point is the most vital. The swing must be considered and felt as a single unity, not as a succession of positions or even succession of movements.

The swing is one and indivisible. Now I consider that our golf is liable to go wrong if we lose sight of any of these essentials."

Reference : 'On Learning Golf' by Percy Boomer. Chapter VIII Preparatory to the Swing. Copyright © 1946 by Percy Boomer. First published in the USA by Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.

Download : The Passive and Reactive parts of the Swing by Percy Boomer "For all golfers the most important picture of the book to study."

by Paul Runyan - The more upright the player stands

"Surely any golfer, regardless of the soundness of his swing or the limit of his experience, knows that golf is not an exact science, and that players will from time to time encounter faults that will need specific treatment.

The Swing PLane by Paul RunyanI have been teaching golf for 35 years and have done much thinking on every phase of the game. The third basic fundamental, the swing's plane, is a much misunderstood, highly controversial aspect of the game.

This aspect of the golf stroke, is influenced most strongly by the degree that the player bends his trunk or torso. The more upright the player stands the more vertical the plane of the swing will generally be.

However, the height of the player also has a strong influence on the swing's plane with the shorter player having a flatter plane and the taller one the more upright plane.

The girth of the player is another factor influencing the swing's plane. Of necessity the stout person uses a flatter swing than his thinner fellow player.

The short stout golfer will need a flatter swing plane than the tall stout, and the tall stout will generally have a flatter plane than the tall thin.

The short stout golfer needs a flat swing, first to allow the arms to clear the body during the swing, and second, to produce an arc of sufficient circumference to produce adequate power. The short thin player could clear his body with his arms while swinging in a more upright plane, but in doing so he might dig under the ball.

The taller stout player should swing on a plane as upright as possible to allow body clearance and adequate power production. From what has been said about the swing plane one may deduce that I feel a flat swing produces more power than an upright one.

This is not true if the upright swing has as wide an arc as the flat one.

The Swing PLane by Paul Runyan How to solve your golf problemsIt is simply a fact that the flatter the plane the wider arc one can use without digging the clubhead into the ground behind the ball. And the flatter plane allows the arms to have greater body clearance, a major necessity for the stouter and shorter player.

Of course the length and lie of the various clubs within a given set, say from the driver to the 9-iron, have a bearing upon the angle of the swing plane.

The longer driver requires a relatively flat plane (Picture 10).

Each succeeding club throughout the matched set to the 9-iron requires a microscopically more upright swing plane because the shafts become shorter and the player stands closer to the ball (Picture 11).

In all cases care must be taken not to become so upright in swing plane as to cause arm friction with the body, clubhead collision with the ground, or power depletion through shortening of the swing's arc.

In summing up, a player will obtain maximum directional control and maximum power if his swing plane is as upright as possible but still not so upright as to produce arm-body friction during the swing."

Reference : 'How to solve your GOLF problems' by the professional panel of GOLF Digest Jack Burke, Jr. Byron Nelson Johnny Revolta Paul Runyan Horton Smith. Part One: Solving Problems "Off The Tee". Part Two: Solving Problems "On The Fairway". Part Three: Solving Problems "Here And There". Cornerstone Library New York. Copyright © 1963 by Golf Digest. Illustrations by James McQueen Designed by James Darby. Introduction The Basic Fundamentals by Paul Runyan The Grip, The Stance or Address, The Swing Plane.

by James Braid - Let us see what this underspin is and what it does

"Now let us see what this underspin is and what it does.

This spin is at the root of all difficulties and all the delights of the game, and yet there are some players - one might even say many - who do not even know that their ball spins at all as they hit it from the tee.

Some fifteen or sixteen years ago scarcely anybody knew that a golf ball ever had any such spin imparted to it by the player; and it was Professor Tait, the father of Mr. F. G. Tait, both now dead, who first studied the matter, and, having done so, proceeded to make many most interesting and scientific calculations as to the flight of the ball in different circumstances.

The basis of the investigations made by the professor, as stated by himself, was an old scientific law, that when an object is poised in still air the atmospheric pressure upon it is equal at all points; and further, that, as had been known for a long time, since the days of Newton, or even before that, when a ball is made to rotate in a current of air, that side of it which is advancing to meet the current is subjected to greater atmospheric pressure than is that which is moving in the direction of the current.

Simplified and applied to golf , this means that when a ball is sliced it spins from left to right, and there is then greater atmospheric pressure from the left, which forces the ball over towards the right.

But when the ball has been pulled from the tee the spin is in the opposite direction, and therefore the extra pressure of the atmosphere is also from the opposite side, with the result that the ball is pressed to the left.

When the ball has been topped, the spin on its front side is in a downward direction, and so the extra air pressure is downwards also, and as in this case there is the force of gravity pulling in the same direction, the downward movement of the ball is very quick and sudden.

Lastly, when the spin given to the ball on the tee is that kind which makes the front side to move in an upward direction, that is to say underspin, the balance of the atmospherical pressure tends to lift it upwards and in the contrary direction to the force of gravity.

A very little thought will show that the result of this must be to keep the ball longer in the air than it would remain in it if there were no underspin, since it is the force of gravity that pulls everything down, and all the time that the ball is in the air it has some of the velocity that was imparted to it on the tee acting upon it until the other forces, chiefly air resistance, exhaust it.

It will be seen, therefore, that pulls, slices, and balls that fly well all arise from the same cause, the rotation of the ball, and that the difference is the direction of the rotation, which is settled by the kind of stroke that the golfer makes.

Therefore the great authority concluded that good driving lies not merely in powerful hitting, but "in the proper apportionment of quite good hitting with such a knack as gives the right amount of underspin to the ball," and one of his calculations was to the effect that, in certain circumstances, a man who imparted underspin to his ball when driving it, might get a carry of about thirty yards more than that obtained by another man who hit hard but made no underspin.

There would, of course, be a great difference in the comparative trajectories of the two balls."

Reference : 'Advanced Golf Or, Hints And Instruction For Progressive Players' By James Braid Chapter XV The Science of The Stroke The Rising Ball, page 227. OPEN CHAMPION, 1901, 1905, AND 1906. With Eighty-Eight Photographs And Diagrams Fifth Edition Methuen & Co. 36 Essex Street W. C. London. Fifth Edition August 1909.

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